Brain Drain is the term used to state a significant emigration of educated and talented individuals. It occurs in countries such as India where the employment opportunities are not at par with the educated youth in the nation. Brain Drain is a slang used to describe a considerable emigration of highly educated and brilliant individuals. It is mainly an outcome of the lack of good employment opportunities within a nation.
Long and Short Essay on Brain Drain
Essay – 1 (250 words)
Brain Drain refers to the mass departure of learned and talented people from a country, organization or industry. It causes a major problem for their place of origin as it suffers a loss of talent that in turn impacts their economic condition. Many countries and organizations around the world are undergoing this grave issue due to various factors.
The Origin of the Term – Brain Drain
The term brain drain was sprint by the Royal Society. It was initially coined to refer to the mass departure of the scientists and technologists from post-war Europe to North America. However, as per another source, this term first sprung up in the United Kingdom and it referred to the arrival of the Indian engineers and scientists. Brain waste and brain circulation are other similar terms.
Initially, the term referred to the technology workers immigrating to another nation however over time it has become a general term used to describe the mass departure of talented and skilled individuals from one country, industry or organization to another in search of better-paying jobs and a higher standard of living.
Brain Drain a Common Phenomenon in Developing Countries
While certain first world counties such as the UK have also experienced major brain drain, the phenomenon is more common in developing countries such as India and China. There are many factors that are responsible for brain drain in these countries. Higher salaries, better medical facilities, access to advanced technology, better standard of living and more stable political conditions are among few of the things that attract professionals towards the developed countries.
Several countries across the globe are facing the problem of brain drain and the government of these countries is taking certain measures to control the same however the problem still persists. Better plans need to be put in to place to control this issue.
Essay – 2 (400 words)
Brain Drain is a broad term used to describe the mass migration of highly talented and skilled individuals from one country to another. The term is also used to refer to the mass departure of skilled professionals from one industry or organization to another to seek better pay and other benefits.
Types of Brain Drain
As mentioned above brain drain occurs at three levels – geographic, organizational and industrial. Here is a look at these different types of Brain Drain in detail:
- Geographical Brain Drain
It is referred to as the departure of highly brilliant and skilled individuals to another country in search of better-paying jobs. It has a negative impact on their home country’s economy and overall development.
- Organizational Brain Drain
The mass exodus of highly talented, skilled and creative employees from one organization to join another is referred to as organizational brain drain. It weakens the organization and toughens competition.
- Industrial Brain Drain
It is the departure of employees from one industry in search of better jobs in other industries. It disturbs the working of the industries where brain drain occurs.
Factors Causing Brain Drain
There are different factors that cause brain drain at different levels. Though these factors are more or less the same, here is a look at these categories wise:
- Geographic Brain Drain
Here are the factors responsible for geographic brain drain:
- Unstable political conditions of a country
- Reservation system (in India) that denies good jobs to the deserving candidates and mostly provides high pay packages to the non-deserving ones
- The low standard of living
- Lack of good employment opportunities
- Lack of good medical facilities
- Organizational Brain Drain
It generally occurs due to the following reasons:
- Lack of good leadership and management in the organization
- Low or no scope of growth
- Pay packages lower than the market standards
- Lack of fair play while giving promotions
- No appreciation for work
- Stringent working hours
- Unreasonable work pressure
- Relocation to a remote place also causes people to look for a job elsewhere
- Industrial Brain Drain
Here are some of the top reasons for industrial brain drain:
- Low salary package
- Low growth prospects
- Undue workload
- Health hazards attached to certain industries
The factors responsible for brain drain have clearly been identified. All that needs to be done is to control these in order to overcome the issue. Among other things, there is a need to float better job opportunities in the market, offer pay packages at par with a person’s skill and create a healthy work environment to avoid this issue.
Essay – 3 (500 words)
Brain Drain, the process of talented individuals migrating from their home country to another in search of better job prospects and an enhanced standard of living, is a growing problem these days. It is a loss for the country of origin as they lose out on talent that impacts their economy negatively. A number of countries across the world see a major pool of talent moving out each year.
Countries Suffering Brain Drain
While the third world countries suffer majorly from the issue of brain drain, developed countries are not safe either. Here is a look at the countries suffering major brain drain:
- The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom that attracts numerous immigrants each year with its attractive pay packages and high standard of living also sees a major brain drain. Several individuals with University degrees have left the UK, their country of origin, to seek jobs in other parts of the world.
The education system of India is considered to be quite strong and one that produces extremely talented and highly intelligent youth who are in demand in every part of the world. Indians get good packages outside along with a better standard of living and thus leave their country.
Greece has also been included in the list of countries facing the brain drain problem lately. The debt crisis explosion in 2008 led to a rapid increase in this issue. A majority of the people from Greece migrate to Germany each year.
Iran is known for religious dictatorship and political oppression and this has led more than 4 million Iranians to migrate to other countries. Research suggests that around 15,000 university-educated individuals leave Iran to get settled in other parts of the country each year.
The civil war in Nigeria is one of the main reasons for Brain Drain in the country. A large number of Nigerians migrate to the US each year in search of better job prospects and a better standard of living.
Malaysia has also been facing the problem of Brain Drain mainly because its neighboring country, Singapore offers better-paying jobs thereby sucking the former’s talent.
China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mexico, and Jamaica are among the other countries that suffer major brain drain.
Impact on the Place of Origin
Brain Drain is not only geographic, a large number of talented individuals migrating from one organization to another or from one industry to another is also known as Brain Drain. When a pool of highly talented and skilled individuals leaves their country, organization or industry and moves to another one in search of better prospects it is an obvious loss for their original place as the work at the later place suffers and so does its economic prosperity. In the case of geographic brain drain, the immigration of doctors and engineers also has a negative impact on society as a whole.
The countries and organizations facing major brain drain problems should analyze the factors responsible for the same and work upon improving the conditions to avoid this issue. It will help boost their place of origin economically.
Essay – 4 (600 words)
When a pool of learned and talented professionals especially doctors, engineers and those belonging to the financial sector leave their country of origin to seek better job opportunities in another country it is known as Brain Drain. The problem is quite common in developing countries such as India. The mass exodus of employees from one company or industry to join the other is also counted as Brain Drain.
India Suffers Major Brain Drain
Indians are making the country proud by excelling in different fields and securing highly paid jobs in different parts of the world. They are known to be brilliant in the fields of business and technology and there have been several reports stating that Indians form a major part of the United State’s technology industry. Indians have thus contributed majorly towards building U.S. technology and in turn its economy. If they had contributed even half as much in the development of India, the country would have been in a better shape currently.
India suffers a major Brain Drain as the employment opportunities available here are not at par with the quality of education provided. Some of the other factors include the unfair reservation system, huge taxes and low standard of living.
Ways to Control Brain Drain
The geographic brain drain, as well as that happening at an organizational level, is equally difficult to deal with. So why not avoid it in the first place. Here are a few ways to overcome the problem of geographic as well as organizational brain drain:
- Do Away with the Quota System
In countries such as India, the talented lot suffer at the hands of the quota system. Many undeserving people from the reserved category secure highly paid jobs while the deserving candidates have to settle for lesser paying ones. It is but natural for such deserving individuals to seek a job that is at par with their talent in a different country and shift base at the first opportunity they get. It is high time the government of India should do away with this biased quota system.
- Let Merit be the Sole Decider
Apart from the quota system, people are also preferred based on their creed, race and other things that have nothing to do with their talent when it comes to giving jobs. Many people have an inclination of giving jobs to those belonging to their own community or town. All this must be stopped and a person must get job-based on his merit and ability.
- Fair Promotion
Many bosses have a liking for certain employees and a dislike for others. Often times it is seen that even if an employee is working hard and is doing a good job he still misses out on the promotion and the one who is the boss’ favorite gets promoted even though he does not qualify in certain parameters. This causes dissatisfaction among the employees and they seek better opportunities outside.
- Improve Leadership
It is said that an employee does not leave the organization, he leaves his boss. Lack of good leaders and managers can cost the company a number of talented employees. People like being encouraged and rewarded for their work and if this does not happen at the right time, they feel de-motivated and look for opportunities outside.
- Salary Packages
An organization must be fair when it comes to deciding salary packages. There should not be a huge variation when it comes to salary packages of the employees working at the same level. Also, the salary package must be at par with the market standards else the employee will leave as soon as he gets a deserving package elsewhere.
One of the ways to uplift the economy of developing countries such as India is to control the problem of Brain Drain. The ways to control this problem such as the ones mentioned here must be taken seriously and implemented by the government and organizations.