India is the largest democracy in the world. Ruled by various kings and emperors and colonized by the Europeans for centuries, India became a democratic nation post its independence in the year 1947. Thereafter, the citizens of India were given the right to vote and elect their leaders. The second most populous country and the seventh-largest country by area, India is the largest democracy in the world. The Indian democratic government was formed after the nation attained independence in 1947. The parliamentary and state assembly elections are held every 5 years to elect the Central and state governments.
Long and Short Essay on Democracy in India
Essay 1 (250 words)
Democracy is said to be the best form of government. It allows every citizen of the country to cast vote and choose their leaders irrespective of their caste, color, creed, religion or gender. The government is elected by the common people of the country and it won’t be wrong to say that it is their wisdom and awareness that determines the success or failure of the government.
Many countries have a democratic system. However, India is the largest democracy in the world. It runs on five democratic principles including sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic and republic. India was declared a democratic nation after it attained freedom from the colonial rule of the British in 1947. Not only the largest, but Indian democracy is also known to be one of the most successful ones.
India has a federal form of democracy with a government at the center that is responsible to the parliament and state governments that are equally accountable for their legislative assemblies. Elections are held at regular intervals in the county and several parties compete to get to the center and also to take their place in the states. People are encouraged to exercise their right to vote to elect the most deserving candidate, though caste is also a big factor in Indian politics.
Campaigns are carried out by different political parties to emphasize on the work they have done for the development of people as well on their future agenda to benefit people.
Democracy in India does not only means providing the right to vote but also ensuring social and economic equality. While the democratic system of the country has received worldwide appreciation there are many areas that require improvement so that democracy can be formed in true sense. The government must work upon eradicating illiteracy, poverty, communalism, casteism and gender discrimination among other things.
Essay 2 (400 words)
Democracy is government by the people, for the people and of the people. The citizens in a democratic nation enjoy the right to vote and elect their government.
India is the largest democracy in the world. After being ruled by the Mughals, Mauryas, British and various other rulers for centuries, India finally became a democratic state after its independence in 1947. The people of the country, who had suffered at the hands of foreign powers, finally got the right to choose their own ministers by casting vote. Democracy in India is not limited to just providing the right to vote to its citizens, it is also working towards social and economic equality.
Democracy in India works on five democratic principles. These are:
- Sovereign: This means free from the interference or control of any foreign power.
- Socialist: This means providing social and economic equality to all the citizens.
- Secular: This means freedom to practice any religion or reject all.
- Democratic: This means the government of India is elected by its citizens.
- Republic: This means the head of the country is not a hereditary king or queen.
Working of Democracy in India
Every Indian citizen, above 18 years of age, can exercise the right to vote in India. There is no discrimination based on a person’s caste, creed, religion, gender or education when it comes to providing the right to vote.
Candidates from several national and regional parties including Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI -M), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) fight for the elections. Candidates evaluate their work during the last tenure of these parties or their representatives and also the promises made by them in order to decide whom to vote.
Scope for Improvement
There is a lot of scope of improvement in Indian democracy. Steps must be taken to:
- Eradicate poverty
- Promote literacy
- Encourage people to vote
- Educate people on choosing the right candidate
- Encourage intelligent and educated people to take up leadership roles
- Eradicate communalism
- Ensure impartial and responsible media
- Monitor the working of the elected members
- Form responsible opposition
Though democracy in India has been appreciated worldwide for its working there is still a lot of scope for improvement. The aforementioned steps must be taken to ensure the smooth functioning of democracy in the country.
Essay 3 (500 words)
A democratic nation is one where the citizens have the right to elect their government. It is sometimes also said to be the “rule of the majority”. Several countries around the world run the democratic government but India takes pride in being the largest democracy.
History of Democracy in India
India had been ruled by several rulers from Mughals to Mauryas. Each of them had their own style of governing the people. It was only after the country got independence from the colonial rule of the Britishers in 1947 that it became a democratic nation. It was then that the people of India, who had suffered tyranny at the hands of the British, attained the right to vote and elect their government for the first time.
Democratic Principles of India
Sovereign refers to an entity that is free from the control of any foreign power. The citizens of India enjoy sovereign power to elect their ministers.
Socialist means providing social and economic equality to all the citizens of India irrespective of their caste, color, creed, gender, and religion.
Secular means the freedom to practice the religion of one’s choice. There is no official state religion in the country.
This means the government of India is elected by its citizens. The right to vote is given to all the Indian citizens without any discrimination.
The head of the country is not a hereditary king or queen. He is elected by an electoral college.
The Working of Democracy in India
Every citizen of India, above the age of 18 years, has the right to vote. The Constitution does not discriminate against anyone on the basis of their caste, color, creed, gender, religion or education.
There are seven national parties in the country namely, Indian National Congress (INC), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI-M), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Besides these, there are a number of regional parties that fight the elections to state legislatures. Elections are held periodically and people exercise their right to vote to elect their representatives. The government is continually making efforts to encourage more and more people to use their right to vote to choose good governance.
Democracy in India is not merely about giving people the right to vote but ensuring equality in all the spheres of life.
Hindrances in the Working of Democracy in India
While the elections have been happening at the right time and a systematic approach is followed to conduct the same ever since the concept of democracy came into being in India there are many hindrances in the smooth functioning of democracy in the country. These include illiteracy, gender discrimination, poverty, cultural disparity, political influence, casteism, and communalism. All of these factors adversely affect democracy in India.
While democracy in India has been appreciated worldwide, there are still miles to go. Factors such as illiteracy, poverty, gender discrimination and communalism that impact the working of democracy in India need to be eradicated in order to allow the citizens to enjoy democracy in true sense.
Essay 4 (600 words)
Democracy in India was formed after the nation was freed from the clutches of the British rule in 1947. It led to the birth of the world’s largest democracy. Under the effective leadership of the Indian National Congress, the people of India attained the right to vote and elect their government.
There are a total of seven national parties in the country – Indian National Congress (INC), Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India -Marxist (CPI-M), All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). Apart from these, many regional parties come forward for elections to state legislatures. Elections to the parliament and state assemblies are held every 5 years.
Democratic Principles of India
Here are the Democratic Principles of India:
Sovereign means independent – free from interference or control of any foreign power. The country has a government directly elected by the citizens of the country. Indian citizens have the sovereign power to elect their leader’s by-elections conducted for the parliament, local bodies as well as the state legislature.
Socialist means social as well as economic equality for all the citizens of the country. Democratic socialism means attaining socialistic goals by way of evolutionary, democratic and non-violent means. The government is making continual efforts to lessen economic inequality by decreasing the concentration of wealth.
This means the right and freedom to choose one’s religion. In India, one has the right to practice any religion or reject them all. The Government of India respects all religions and does not have any official state religion. It does not disgrace or promote any religion.
This means the government of the country is elected democratically by its citizens. The people of the country have the right to elect their government at all levels (Union, State and local) by way of the universal adult franchise also known as ‘one man one vote’. The right to vote is given without any discrimination on the basis of the color, caste, creed, religion, gender or education. Not just political, the people of India also enjoy social and economic democracy.
The head of the state here is not a heredity king or queen but an elected person. The ceremonial head of the state, that is, the President of India is elected by an electoral college for a period of five years, while executive powers are vested in the Prime Minister.
Challenges Faced by Indian Democracy
While the constitution promises a democratic state and the people of India have been entitled to all the rights a person should enjoy in a democratic state, there are a lot of factors that impact its democracy and pose a challenge to it. Here is a look at these factors:
Illiteracy among people is one of the biggest challenges the Indian democracy has faced ever since its inception. Education enables people to exercise their right to vote wisely.
People belonging to the poor and backward classes are usually manipulated by the political parties. They are often bribed to acquire their votes.
Apart from these, casteism, gender discrimination, communalism, religious fundamentalism, political violence, and corruption are among other factors that are a challenge for democracy in India.
Democracy in India has received appreciation from the world over. The right to vote for every citizen of the country has been given without any discrimination on the basis of their caste, color, creed, religion, gender or education. However, the huge cultural, religious and linguistic diversity in the country is a major challenge for its democracy. The differences sought to be created out of it, are a cause of serious concern. There is a need to curb these divisive tendencies in order to ensure the smooth functioning of democracy in India.