Environmental Pollution refers to the substance pollution of the environment, involving the introduction of harmful and toxic substances into the atmosphere. These harmful substances are generated as byproducts in industries, agricultural activities, urbanization, and other similar human activities. Today, environmental pollution has become the greatest threat to the environment and must be prevented at any cost if we want the planet to be livable and healthy.

Long and Short Essay on Environmental Pollution

Essay 1 (250 words)

The term environmental pollution is used to describe the contamination of the environment by external substances called pollutants. These pollutants are generated due to human activities and could be in a gaseous, solid or liquid state, depending on their respective processes of generation.

Gaseous pollutants include gases like Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) generated due to the combustion of fossil fuels. These gases are toxic in nature and harmful to breathe in, when present in the atmosphere in large quantities.

Solid pollutants include industrial waste and waste from human settlements. They consist of all types of solid compounds like plastic, metal, wood, leaves, etc. Solid pollutants not only cause land and soil pollution but also reach our water bodies and pollute them.

Liquid pollutants, on the other hand, consist of oil and other petroleum products, chemicals, acids, etc. The main source of liquid pollutants is petroleum and fuel production industries.

Environmental pollution has an adverse effect on vital resources like air, water, and plants as well as on the health and life of humans. Air pollutions cause respiratory ailments while the pollution of water bodies leads to water-borne diseases. Soil pollution also causes contamination of soil affecting crop production in that particular area.

There is an urgent need to control environmental pollution by effectively controlling the production of pollutants by adopting more environment-friendly policies. The use of more eco-friendly fuel sources and proper collection and disposal of waste are some of the methods that could be adopted to control environmental pollution.


Essay 2 (300 words)


When an unwanted toxic substance enters our otherwise pure environment, it is termed as pollution. Environmental pollution is a serious threat to the environment and its resources. Ironically, almost all of the causes of environmental pollution are human-induced. Below we have presented some important pollution facts for kids, to improve their knowledge.

Environmental Pollution Facts for Kids

Below we have provided below pointwise narration of environmental pollution facts for kids:

  • Pollution is a serious health concern for people around the world, including children and adults. Nearly 10 million people worldwide are suffering due to pollution-related issues and it is also responsible for the death of more than 2 million children under the age of 5.
  • Water pollution in developed countries is chiefly due to industrial waste. Around 70% of industrial waste in developed countries is dumped into the water, making the lakes and rivers too polluted for any activity.
  • Pollution of fresh drinking water is one of the main causes of loss of life throughout the world. Every year at least 250 million cases of water-borne diseases are reported, which subsequently causes 2 to 10 million deaths.
  • A normal human being breathes in around 11,000 liters of air per day. Therefore, breathing polluted air causes severe lung diseases and people living in places with poor air quality are more susceptible to it.
  • Motor vehicles are the main source of air pollution than anything else. An average car produces at least half a ton of carbon dioxide.


Though, the pollution affects the environment and the health of flora and fauna; it is the children who are more susceptible to its health hazards. We must take the necessary steps to curb pollution in order to safeguard the health and future of our children.


Essay 3 (400 words)


Environmental pollution refers to the inclusion of unwanted toxic pollutants into the environment. These pollutants are mainly generated due to several human activities and cause environmental degradation. Different types of pollutants lead to different types of environmental pollution which we will discuss below.

Types of Environmental Pollution

1) Water Pollution

Water Pollution occurs when toxic substances like chemicals, plastic, and other waste enter our water resources. The pollutants could include chemicals from agricultural runoff, industrial waste, urban sewage, oil spills by boats, etc. Freshwater is a very precious natural resource and must be kept clean at any cost. As per an estimate provided by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), 64% of lakes are not suitably clean for activities like fishing and swimming.

2) Air Pollution

Air Pollution occurs when particles and other harmful gases generated due to human activities get mixed with the environmental air and causes its degradation. The main cause of air pollution is the production and use of fossil fuels. The fossil fuel production industry produces harmful gases like SO2 (Sulphur dioxide), CO2 (Carbon dioxide), etc. These gases are toxic in nature and cause other serious complications like greenhouse effects and acid rain.

3) Land/Soil Pollution

The main cause of land/soil pollution is urban waste and agricultural runoff. The urban waste consists of all type of degradable, and nondegradable waste likes vegetables, waste food, plastic, hospital waste, etc. In the absence of a proper waste collection and disposal mechanism, these wastes get disposed of land resulting in land pollution. Moreover, the use of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural industry causes the chemical pollutants to get absorbed in the soil, causing soil pollution.

4) Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is also known as sound pollution and is caused when the noise level into the environment reaches up to a dangerously high level so as to interfere with the normal activities of humans and animals. Transportation vehicles, heavy machinery, aircraft are the main sources of noise pollution. Noise level is measured in Decibel (dB) and the permissible limit of noise as described by the World Health Organization (WHO) is 50 dB. Though, in the areas of dense population, urban settlement and traffic it often reaches up to 98 dB, which is very harmful to humans and animals.


There are many types of pollution depending on the activities they are generated from; nevertheless, the ability to deal with all of them lies only with humans. It is required that we take immediate responsibility for our environment and also take necessary steps towards preventing its pollution.


Essay 4 (500 words)


Everything that surrounds us constitutes the environment. It is the condition in which humans, plants, animals and other creatures live and operate. Environmental Pollution, on the other hand, is the introduction of unwanted and often toxic substances into the environment. These substances are termed as pollutants and are mainly produced due to human activities. In the following essay, we will go through the causes, effects, and control of environmental pollution.

Causes of Environmental Pollution

There are many causes of environmental pollution including oil spills, burning of fossil fuels, industrial waste, use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, use of plastic, etc. for instance, the transportation industry relies on fuel like petrol and diesel that has been derived formed due to anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The main pollutant gas emitted when fossil fuel is burned in a transport vehicle is CO2 (Carbon dioxide) and CO (Carbon Monoxide). Former is a potent greenhouse gas while the latter is toxic in nature.

Similarly, the industrial waste generated in the industries throughout the world is carelessly dumped into the environment due to a lack of proper planning and infrastructure. It pollutes our water bodies, land and is also harmful to the health of humans and other living species.

Effects of Environmental Pollution

The effects of Environmental Pollution are on a number of factors including human health as well as the survival and health of other living organisms, animals and plants.

Air pollution causes severe respiratory ailments in humans and animals alike. Water pollution renders the water toxic and natural water resource unusable. It also causes the depletion of aquatic species and the flora and fauna that depend on it.

Apart from the above-mentioned effects of environmental pollution, there are some more severe effects like global warming, floods, famine, and acid rain. Global warming is caused due to the excess environmental concentration of gases like CO2 (Carbon dioxide), CH4 (Methane), N2O (Nitrous Oxide) and O3 (ozone). These gases are primarily released due to human activities like transportation, industrialization, etc.

How to Control Environmental Pollution

Pollution control refers to the controlling of emissions from human activities, into the environment. The waste products that are generated by transportation, industrialization, and several other similar activities; lead to the degradation of the environment.

The pollution caused by these waste products could be controlled by adapting to new environmental-friendly norms for the industries and by allowing recycling or proper disposal of waste.

Methods like dust collection system and electrostatic precipitation can be used to control air pollution; sewage treatment like sedimentation can be used for treating industrial and urban waste.


Environmental pollution is one of the greatest threats to the health of the planet. Ever-growing human needs and man’s quest for progress is consistently degrading the atmosphere and its elements. There is an urgent need to take necessary action for controlling the environmental pollution caused due to human activities by taking necessary remedial measures.


Essay 5 (600 Words)


In the name of uninhibited progress and development, humans have gorged upon the pristine glory that once the earth was.  What’s happened to it now is the effect of years of exploitation of its natural resources.  We can look forward not to a bright future, despite our so-called ‘progress’, but a damaged one.  The earth and its creatures cannot sustain themselves due to the effects of the environmental population.

Environmental Pollution

Human evolution has come full circle – from creation to self-destruction.  Both quantity and quality of our natural wealth – air for life, water for drinking and otherwise, land for forests and food – is forsaking us.

You do not have to see or go far to prove this. Look at the garbage inside your own home and its pile every few meters of the walk. Deafening horns blare to damage your ears, vehicles emit fumes, pure water is beyond bounds, like a dream. Your throat, eyes, and nose are parched, itchy and poisoned due to the effects of pollution.

Effects of Environmental Pollution on Health

  • Effects on Air

Dust and carbon particulates suspend in the air in the form of haze, smog and smoke are damaging respiratory systems. Caused by emissions from industrial and manufacturing units; burning fossil fuels for energy, vehicular combustion of carbon fumes.

These factors affect the immune system to cause allergies and infections due to viruses transmitted to the air and through infected birds and animals.

Environmental pollution also affects the system and body organs. It causes cancer, bronchitis, respiratory diseases in children and adults; liver, lung and heart diseases; nasal dysfunction due to infection, allergies, and inflammations of the throat are the effects of air pollution.

  • Effects on Land, Soil, and Food

Both organic and chemical human waste poisons the air with its odor.  It introduces chemicals in soil and water. Land pollution is caused by inundated agricultural practices, in the forms of pesticides and fertilizers for crops; seasonal farming and soil erosion; dust from plowing; animal manures and carcasses and crop residues.

  • Effects on Water

Water gets contaminated with waste and debris and chemical effulgent from industries and human-made dumps. This water is used for drinking and irrigating crops which either get damaged or germ infected.  Animals drink and die due to the same water. It also affects marine life. 80% of marine pollution comes from land that drives its entire chemicals, particulates, industrial, agricultural and other dangerous organisms. All water, carrying waste, rubbish and sewage flows towards rivers and empties into oceans in a big way. Animals, other than while grazing, choke on the same water, swallowing plastics and chemically laced objects. This affects their organs and hastens the mortality rate in them also.

  • Effects on Food (Safety)

Soil and water pollution contaminates food, which further affects health. Food carries and laced with chemical components obtained through the first step in their cycle of growth and ends with their products and sell in the markets. Beginning with the use of fertilizers and pesticides and contaminated water in the soil, to use of preservatives after harvest, to increase their life.

  • Effects on Climate

Climate change is defined as a variation in normal weather patterns, caused by pollution. It affects the physical and biological entities in the biosphere.

Also referred to as global warming, is over-heating of earth’s hemisphere. The heat of the sun’s rays and through emissions, cause the protective, ozone layer to slowly corrode; trapping the heat inside.

The heat is trapped uninhibited for 50 – 200 years, after that it is emitted. Its effects will be felt fatally by the coming generation. Extreme and irregular hot and cold temperatures affect humans, animals and the biosphere. Other unstable climatic features are – famine, parched land, intermittent or shallow rain, and snow, suspended haze, and smog of carbon particles in the atmosphere; also severe dust storms due to denuded soil; thunderstorms, avalanches, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions.


Man has splurged enough on his natural environmental wealth at the cost of the health of nature’s creatures – animate and inanimate. The effects are emerging now at high speed and weighing critically in 100s and 1000s of years thence.

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