Article 15 comes under Part III of the Constitution of India. This part includes information about the fundamental rights of Indian citizens. Article 15 was introduced to further the Right to Equality which is one of the fundamental rights of the citizens of our country. As per Article 15, the State, as well as its citizens, cannot discriminate based on a person’s caste, sex, religion, race or place of birth. The article further says that the State has the right to make special provisions to uplift the weaker section of the society.

Long and Short Essay on Article 15 of the Indian Constitution

Essay 1 (250 Words)


Article 15 of the Indian Constitution bars the State as well as its citizens from discriminating on the basis of caste, sex, race, religion or place of birth; however, it allows favorable distinction. As per the article, special provisions can be made for women and children.

The article does not even stop the State from making and implementing special provisions for the upliftment of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other socially and economically backward classes.

Why was Article 15 of the Indian Constitution Introduced?

The inclusion of this article in the Indian Constitution was necessary because a lot of discrimination was going on in the country in the name of caste, religion, race, sex, and place of birth for centuries.

The caste system was one of the major social evils prevalent in our society. The way one was treated was mainly based on the caste he belonged to. For instance, the Brahmins were considered upper-class people. They were respected by everyone. They got the best jobs in society and enjoyed a good lifestyle.

On the other hand, the Shudhras were considered inferior so much so that they were called the untouchables. People from the other castes looked down upon them. They were not allowed to enter temples, restaurants, and other public places. They were involved in menial tasks such as cleaning and sweeping.

Similarly, the condition of women in society was very low in the pre-independence era. They were mostly confined to household tasks and not allowed to go out and work. Girls were not even sent to school. Discrimination was also done based on other mentioned factors, that is, the place of birth, religion, and race. It was important to stop such discrimination.

Article 15 also allows for special provisions for the weaker section of the society in order to strengthen their position in society.


Thus, the inclusion of Article 15 was important so as to give a fair chance to everyone so that they can grow and develop the right way.  The article hopes to completely eliminate caste, gender and origin-based discrimination one day and making India a country where all citizens are treated equally in terms of opportunities and fundamental rights.


Essay 2 (400 Words)


The Indian Constitution came into effect on 26th January 1950. It includes various articles that serve as a guiding light for the State and its citizens. Article 15 of the Indian Constitution has been added to stop the heinous practice of discrimination based on irrational reasons. The article prohibits discrimination on the grounds of a person’s caste race, religion, sex or place of birth. Article 15 has been divided into 5 sub-articles.

Here is a look at the various sub-articles of Article 15:

Article 15 (1)

The State cannot discriminate against any citizen only on the basis of their race, religion, sex, caste or place of birth.

Article 15 (2)

The citizens of India are also prohibited from making any discrimination against other citizens only on the basis of their race, religion, sex, caste or place of birth. On the basis of these grounds, no citizen shall be subject to any restriction or condition with regard to:

  1. Access to malls, shops, hotels, public restaurants and other places of public entertainment.
  2. Use of tanks, wells, bathing ghats, roads and other places of public resort built and maintained partly or wholly by State funds.

Article 15 (3)

The State has the right to make special provisions for women and children. Nothing in this article stops the State from doing so.

Article 15 (4)

The State has the right to make special provisions for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and other socially and educationally backward classes. This article does not bar the State from making such provisions.

Article 15 (5)

This sub-article was added later. It was a result of an amendment made in the article in the year 2018. It was after the government declared a 10% reservation for the socially and economically weaker sections of the society in colleges and universities.

As per this clause, nothing in this article can bar the State from making special provisions pertaining to admission in educational institutions (be it private, government or government-aided) for the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes, and other backward classes.


Article 15 of the Indian Constitution has very clearly mentioned that discrimination based on caste, race, religion, sex or place of birth shall not be tolerated. However, favorable discrimination based on certain other aspects can be done for the upliftment of the weaker sections of the society. The state, as well as the citizens of India, must adhere to the instructions shared in Article 15. Failing to do so can result in strict action against them.


Essay 3 (500 Words)


Article 15 of the Indian Constitution has been made to prohibit discrimination made on unreasonable grounds such as caste, religion, race, sex, and place of birth. The State and its citizens cannot make discrimination based on these five grounds. The state and its citizens may be subject to serious consequences if found guilty of practicing discrimination.

Government Acts to Implement Article 15

The government has come up with special schemes and acts to implement Article 15 of the Indian constitution in the country. These schemes aim to bar discrimination and uplift the backward and weaker sections of the society. Here is a look at some of these schemes:

  • Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

As per this act, no one from the SC and ST community shall be discriminated against. Also, no violence would be undertaken on them just because they are from this community.

  • Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016

Article 15 encourages favorable distinction to empower the weaker section of the society and ensure equality in society. The right of the Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 was established to uplift and encourage people with physical and mental disabilities. It brought about special provisions for these people to improve their status in society.

  • Hindu Succession Act, 1956

This act has especially been created to uplift the status of women in Indian society. As per this act, discrimination against women that they had limited ownership of property was abolished. A uniform system of inheritance and succession was defined by way of this act.

After its enforcement, the Hindu women were given complete power to deal with the property they possessed. They got the right to keep it, dispose of it or use it in any lawful manner. Males already enjoyed this privilege in our society.

  • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013

Women often face sexual harassment at workplaces and are not even allowed to raise their voice against this injustice. Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013 was implemented to empower women and ensure a safer work environment for them.

This act encourages women to stand up against sexual harassment at the workplace. They can very well go ahead and report such cases. Quick and stringent actions are taken against the perpetrators.

Likewise, many other acts have been put in place for the betterment of the weaker section. Several others have been proposed and may be implemented soon.

Consequences of Going against Article 15 of the Indian Constitution

If a person does not comply with the provisions mentioned in Article 15, he is liable for punishment as per the Indian law. The punishment is given based on the severity of the situation. For instance, a person who discriminates against people belonging to the Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribes can face imprisonment along with a considerable amount of fine.


Certain discriminations going on in society since centuries are seriously unjust and even inhuman. These must be stopped immediately. The introduction of Article 15 in the Indian constitution has brought such discriminatory practices down; however, there is still a long way to go.


Essay 4 (600 Words)


Article 15 was introduced to diminish unfair discrimination that had been prevalent in Indian society for centuries. The article is aimed at promoting a society where people enjoy equal rights and benefits and do not face discrimination on the grounds of sex, caste, religion, race or place of birth.

In order to promote equality, it is not only important to do away with the unjustified discriminatory practices but also make some special provisions to uplift the weaker and backward sections of the society. Article 15 allows the creation and implementation of such special provisions. It has given way to many acts and provisions to benefit these sections.

Initiatives to Educate People about Article 15

Going against Article 15 and practicing discrimination prohibited in its calls for stringent punishment under the Indian law. This is the reason why people must be made aware of Article 15 states. Only when people know about it, will they take precaution and avoid indulging in such a practice. The government should take initiatives to make the general public aware of Article 15 as well as the consequences of going against it. Some possible initiatives to further this agenda can be as follows:

  • Awareness in Schools/ Colleges

It is essential to make the citizens aware of their rights, duties and the lawful practices that should be followed from an early age itself. The best way to do so is by acquainting them with the same in the school. Special classes should be held every few months to make the students aware of Article 15. Its importance should be stressed upon during such classes. The consequences of going against the same must also be discussed to sensitize the issue.

Children often do what they see at home and in society. Since this discriminatory practice is still present in society at various levels, it is common for children to learn and imbibe it.

Any student seen practicing discrimination based on the aforementioned five grounds in school must be punished. For instance, if a boy is seen bullying a girl or if students are caught mistreating their fellow students who belong to lower caste then they must be reprimanded then and there.

  • Awareness at Work Place

Just like schools, awareness programs to provide information about Article 15 must be conducted at workplaces as well. Employees must be given complete information about what this article is all about and why it is important to adhere to it.

The consequences of going against this constitutional law should also be explained in detail. Organizations must also formulate rules to punish anyone going against Article 15. This is a good way to discourage unjust discrimination.

  • Awareness in Villages and Backward Areas

In villages and backward areas, people are still gripped by the evil caste system. Besides, women are also being treated badly and haven’t attained equal status as men. Discrimination on the basis of religion, race, and place of birth is also quite common in such areas. The government must make a special initiative to spread awareness about Article 15 in these areas. This will create fear among those practicing discrimination and empower those who have been a victim of the same.

  • Spreading Awareness about Article 15 via Bollywood

Recently, a Bollywood movie named Article 15 was released. The movie starring actor, Ayushmaan Khurana in the lead role showed how people are still discriminating based on caste, race, sex, religion, and place of birth. It aimed to make people aware of the provisions of Article 15 and also to encourage them to raise voice against anyone practicing the same.

Bollywood is a great means to reach out to the general public. The movie strongly condemned unfair discrimination and inspired people to stop indulging in the same as well as accepting this behavior.


Article 15 has been included in the Indian Constitution to create a better society. The government must take special initiatives to ensure it is implemented well. Article 15 holds the basic fundamental right of a democracy that is Right to equality. If the Right to Equality is infringed upon, then the whole concept of democracy gets lost.

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