Diabetes is a metabolic disease, in which the human body fails to utilize the sugar (glucose) content in blood, thus resulting in high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time. Sugar present in our blood is carried by a hormone called Insulin, to the cells and stored or used as a source of energy. Diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the insulin is unable to effectively transfer the produced glucose to the body tissues.

Short and Long Essay on Diabetes

Essay 1 (300 Words)


Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease caused due to the excess blood sugar level in the human body. An excessive quantity of sugar in the blood, damage other vital organs like – kidney, heart, and brain. Though it is caused by the underproduction of insulin hormone by the pancreas, it is also a lifestyle disease, caused due to unhealthy dietary habits and lack of physical exercise.

Effects of Diabetes on Health

Diabetes has a wide range of effects on the human body and health.  It is the condition in which the glucose present in the human blood somehow fails to be utilized as the source of energy. It could be either due to underproduction of insulin hormone, which carries sugar from the blood to the cells, or it could be due to the unresponsiveness of cells to receive the sugar.

Whatever the reason may be, it results in excess blood sugar (glucose) content. Diabetes may potentially affect vital organs like heart, kidney, brain, and eyes. It may cause cardiovascular diseases, heart attack, kidney failure, hearing loss, bacterial and fungal skin infections, and brain stroke.

World Diabetes Day and its Significance

Globally, around 425 million people are suffering from diabetes and the number is about to increase significantly in the coming years if the preventive measures are not taken. Therefore, to raise awareness of people about diabetes, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) observes World Diabetes Day every year on 14th November.

World Diabetes Day was first launched in 1991, as a countermeasure to the increasing number of diabetes patients around the world.


Diabetes Mellitus is a global threat, with billions affected globally by it, it becomes imperative to raise public awareness about the causes, symptoms, and effects of diabetes in order to effectively reduce the number of patients globally. Global events like World Diabetes Day play a significant role in freeing the world from Diabetes Mellitus.


Essay 2 (400 Words)


Diabetes Mellitus is a condition when the human body is unable to effectively utilize the sugar (glucose) present in its blood ultimately leading to high blood glucose levels. Blood is a vital body fluid that reaches all the body parts, and an abnormally high glucose level in blood could potentially damage the vital body organs and other body parts.

Causes and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is identified by high sugar (glucose) content in human blood. Glucose is a source of energy for the body and is normally present in the blood which supplies glucose to other parts of the body. The body parts that receive glucose do so with the help of a hormone called Insulin. As long as the pancreas normally produces insulin, the blood glucose level is maintained. But, an abnormality in insulin production or its inefficiency to effectively transfer the glucose to the body tissues, leads to an excess of glucose in the blood. This metabolic condition is identified as Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus.

Common symptoms of diabetes mellitus include tiredness, loss of stamina, sweating, persistent hunger, loss of weight and frequent urination. Any such symptoms must not be neglected and proper medical advice must be sought.

How Diabetes is Related to the Health of Kidney

Diabetes is one of the most common causes of kidney failure. Kidneys are the vital body organ that cleans the blood. The high content of glucose in the blood damages the blood vessels of the kidney, resulting in a medical condition called Diabetic Nephropathy.

With damaged blood vessels, your kidneys will not be able to effectively clean the blood, resulting in waste accumulation in your blood and body as well. This cycle continues, further damaging the kidneys and also other body parts. If the damage continues, it might result in serious complications including kidney failure.

The damage to the kidneys begins long before the other symptoms of diabetes actually appear. Patients suffering from diabetes should get their kidneys examined from time to time. Retention of urine in the bladder caused due to diabetes might also result in pressure on kidneys, further damaging them.


It is recorded that around 30 to 40% of diabetes patients will eventually face kidney failure. The number is disturbing given the billions of diabetes patients worldwide. Apart from raising people’s awareness of diabetes, there is also a need to make the tests of kidneys affordable for a common man. Diabetes patients must be regularly tested for the health of their kidneys and other vital organs.


Essay 3 (500 Words)


Diabetes is a metabolic condition in which the blood retains more glucose than it should under normal conditions. A high blood glucose level may damage the vital organs of the human body like kidney, eyes, ear, heart, and brain. Diabetes is caused due to underproduction of insulin hormone by the pancreas, which acts as a bridge for blood sugar (glucose), to move from the blood to the other cells of the body.

Signs of Diabetes Mellitus

Some of the typical symptoms of Diabetes include anxiety, tiredness, blurred vision, headache, irritation, weakness, loss of stamina and a faster heartbeat. These are only initial symptoms of diabetes and indicate the forthcoming severe consequences. Every sign of diabetes speaks volumes about the effects of the disease. For example, tiredness, dizziness is caused due to the inability of one’s body cells to successfully convert blood glucose into energy. Increased blood sugar levels in the blood damage the vital organs including the heart.

Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Attack

A person suffering from diabetes is more likely to have cardiovascular complications including heart attack. Diabetes leads to high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels, escalating the possibility of a heart attack.

High glucose content in the blood damages the blood vessels of the heart. Damaged blood vessels are unable to pump the required blood at the required rate, ultimately causing heart attack and other heart diseases. People suffering from diabetes are more likely to have cardiovascular disorders from a very early age than the people who are not suffering from diabetes.

There are also certain factors that might increase one’s chance of heart attack, like smoking, drinking liquor, obesity, high cholesterol level, and unhealthy lifestyle. The given factors, if present with diabetes, substantially increase the chances of a heart attack.

Prevention is Better than Cure

The best way for a diabetic person to stop a heart attack from occurring is by keeping a check on his/her blood sugar level. A diabetic person should always take necessary precautions to keep his/her blood sugar level under control. The precautions include – routine checkup of sugar level and heart, avoiding unhealthy and oily food, quit smoking, adapting to a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, and early morning walks, etc.

The blood vessels of a diabetic patient are already weaker as compared to that of a normal human being. If a diabetic patient consumes unhealthy or junk food, he/she increases his/her cholesterol level, which together with the damaged blood vessels makes a heart attack most likely possible. Activities like exercising and walking keep one’s cholesterol level under control, hence decreasing the chances of a heart attack.

A diabetic person must also take precautionary measures to keep his/her high blood pressure under control. Such patients are more likely to get a heart attack when compared to any normal patient of high blood pressure.


Diabetes is a silent killer; when unchecked, it slowly damages the vital organs resulting in their malfunction and severe health complications. Necessary precautionary measures should be taken, especially by a diabetic person to keep his/her heart and other vital organs in a healthy condition. Diabetes damages the heart’s blood vessels increasing the possibility of a heart attack.


Essay 4 (600 Words)

This one is a complete essay providing information about “Meaning, Types, Causes, Symptoms, Effects, and Levels of Diabetes.”


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is identified by the high blood sugar (glucose) level. An increased blood glucose level damages the vital organs as well as other organs of the human body causing other potential health ailments.

Types of Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus could be further classified into the following two types –

1) Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is classified by the deficiency of insulin in the blood. The deficiency is caused by the loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes is found more common in children. It is characterized by an abnormally high or low blood sugar levels.

The patients of type 1 diabetes require regular administration of insulin. The type 1 diabetes is hereditary i.e. you are most likely to have type 1 diabetes if any of your parents had it. Symptoms of Type 1 diabetes include frequent urination, thirst, weight loss, and constant hunger.

2) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by the inefficiency of body tissues to effectively respond to insulin, which may be combined with insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes.

People with type 2 diabetes mellitus take medicines to improve the body’s responsiveness to insulin or to reduce the glucose produced by the liver. This type of diabetes mellitus is generally attributed to lifestyle factors like – obesity, low physical activity, irregular and unhealthy diet, excess consumption of sugar in the form of sweets, drinks, etc.

Causes of Diabetes

The food that we eat is broken down into useful compounds through the process of digestion. One of these compounds is glucose, usually referred to as blood sugar. Glucose is food for the cells of the human body i.e. body cells rely on the availability of glucose for further using it as a source of energy. The job of carrying glucose to the cells of the body is done by the blood.

But mere carrying the glucose to the cells by blood isn’t enough for the cells to absorb glucose, a job which is done by the hormone insulin, supplied by the pancreas. Insulin acts as a bridge for glucose to transit from blood to the body cells. The problem arises when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body cells for some reason don’t respond to receive the glucose; both the cases result in the excess of glucose in the blood, which is referred to as Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The most common symptoms of diabetes are fatigue, irritation, stress, tiredness, frequent urination and headache including loss of strength and stamina, weight loss, increase in appetite, etc.

Levels of Diabetes

There are two types of blood sugar levels – fasting blood sugar level (blood sugar test before food) and postprandial blood sugar level (blood sugar test two hours after having a meal). Sugar level measured after fasting for at least eight hours generally after an overnight fast is called fasting sugar level. Blood sugar level below 100 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) before eating food is considered normal.

Sugar level measured after two hours of eating is called postprandial glucose level or PP level. The PP blood sugar level should be below 140 mg/dL, two hours after the meals.

Though the maximum limit in both cases is defined, the permissible levels may vary among individuals. Some people may have a normal fasting sugar level of 60 mg/dL while some may have a normal value of 90 mg/dL.

Effects of Diabetes

Diabetes may have severe health consequences and it affects vital body organs. Excessive glucose in blood damages kidneys, blood vessels, skin resulting in various cardiovascular and skin diseases and other ailments. Diabetes damages the kidneys, resulting in the accumulation of impurities in the body. It also damages the heart’s blood vessels increasing the possibility of a heart attack.

Apart from damaging vital organs, diabetes may cause various skin infections and infection in other parts of the body. The prime cause of all types of infections is the decreased immunity of body cells due to their inability to absorb glucose.


Diabetes is a serious life-threatening disease and must be constantly monitored and effectively subdued with proper medication and by adapting to a healthy lifestyle. By following a healthy lifestyle, regular checkups and proper medication one can observe a healthy and long life.

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