When a large area of land is submerged underwater, which otherwise would have been dry under normal condition, is termed to be flooded. The flood could be caused either due to natural calamities or man-made errors. Some of the natural causes of floods are incessant rains, and flooding of rivers, tsunami, etc. Some of the man-made causes of floods are dammed breakage, water clogging, and ineffective or faulty drainage system. Floods not only cause damage to the property but are also harmful to life and health.
Long and Short Essay on Flood
Essay – 1 (250 words)
The flood caused due waterlogging that is mostly a result of heavy rainfall is known to have fatal consequences. It results in loss of life, a rise in diseases, price rise, economic loss and destruction of the environment among other issues. The impact the floods depend on their type and severity.
Types of Floods
Some floods can subside in a few days while others take weeks to subside and have a major impact on the lives of the people living in that area. Here is a look at the different types of floods:
- Slow On-set Floods
This type of flood is caused when water bodies such as rivers overflow and affect the nearby areas. This flood develops slowly and may last from a few days to weeks. These spread over several kilometers and mostly impact the low lying areas. Water accumulated due to floods in such areas may cause harm to property and can also be a cause of various diseases.
- Rapid On-set Floods
These take a slightly longer to build and can last for a day or two. These are also known to be extremely destructive. However, people are mostly warned about these and have a chance to escape before the situation becomes worse. Tourists planning a holiday to such places can postpone or cancel the plan when there is still time and avoid the trauma caused by this situation.
- Flash Floods
Flash floods mostly occur within a very short duration of time such as a few hours or even minutes. These are mostly caused due to heavy rainfall, melting of snow or dam break. These are known to be the most fatal among all and can result in mass destruction as these are almost sudden and people do not get any time to take caution.
Floods disrupt the day to day life in the affected regions. They cause various problems for the people living in such areas. Regions hit by severe floods take months and at times even years to rebuild.
Essay – 2 (400 words)
Flood is a natural disaster that is caused due to the accumulation of excessive water in a region. This is often an outcome of heavy rainfall. Many regions also face floods due to the overflow of river or ocean water, breaking of dams and melting of snow. In the coastal areas, hurricanes and tsunamis are known to bring about this condition.
Flood-Prone Regions around the World
Several regions across the globe are prone to frequent floods. The cities around the world that face severe and frequent floods include Mumbai and Kolkata in India, Guangzhou, Shenzen, and Tianjin in China, Guayaquil in Ecuador, New York, NY-Newark, NJ, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Miami, and New Orleans. Floods are known to have caused mass destruction in these areas in the past.
How to Control the Problem Caused Due to Floods?
From damaging the environment to disrupting human life – floods have several negative repercussions that are difficult to deal with. It is thus important to take measures to control the same. Here are a few ways to control this problem:
- Flood Warning Systems
It is the need of the hour to set up better flood warning systems so that people are warned about the upcoming problem right on time and they have enough time to safeguard themselves and their belongings
- Construct Buildings Above the Flood Level
Buildings in the flood-prone area must be constructed above the flood level so as to avoid damage to the property as well as the people living there.
- Introduce Water Storage System
The government must invest in building water storage systems to store and reuse rainwater. This way the excess water can be put to use instead of letting it overflow on the plains and cause the flood.
- Strengthen Drainage System
One of the main causes of the flood is the poor drainage system. It is essential to build good drainage systems to avoid waterlogging that results in the flood.
- Install Flood Barriers
Flood barriers should be installed in areas that are prone to flood. These can be removed once the water recedes.
While the occurrence of rainfall, melting of snow-mountains, overflowing of water bodies and hurricanes can be difficult to control however these can be predicted in most cases and the government can take measures to ensure that waterlogging, that in turn results in flood, does not happen as a result of these conditions. This can be done by employing a few of the methods shared above.
Essay – 3 (500 words)
Floods are caused by a number of reasons including heavy rainfall, overflow of water from water bodies such as rivers and oceans, melting of glaciers, hurricanes and strong winds along the coastlines. When there is a lack of a good drainage system to suck up the excess water it results in water-logging that causes a flood.
Consequences of Flood
Floods disrupt the normal functioning of the region affected. Severe floods can result in mass destruction. Here is how floods impact life on earth:
- Threat to Life
Many people and animals lose their lives because of severe flash floods. Many others get injured and are infected by various diseases. Water accumulated at places for days results in the breeding of mosquitoes and other insects that are the cause of various diseases such as malaria and dengue. Cases of dysentery, pneumonic plague, and military fever are also on the rise during this time.
- Power Cuts
The supply of electricity and water is disrupted during this time thereby adding to the problems of the general public. There is also a risk of catching current in places where the electricity supply is still intact.
- Economic Loss
Many people lose their houses and other assets such as automobiles that they take years to earn. It is also a costly affair for the government as it has to deploy a number of policemen, firemen and other officials to conduct the rescue operation. In case of severe floods, the affected regions take years to re-build.
- Price Rise
The supply of goods in the flood-affected areas lowers as road transport cannot reach there. Besides, the goods stored in these areas also get spoiled due to floods. There is a shortage of supply and the demand is high and it thus results in increased prices of the commodities.
- Soil Erosion
When the downpour is too heavy, the soil cannot absorb the entire water and it often results in soil erosion which in turn has dreadful consequences. In addition to the erosion of soil, the quality of soil is also impacted, often degraded.
- Damage of the Flora
Floods are not just a threat to human beings and animals but also destroy the flora. Heavy rains are often accompanied by thunder, lightning and strong winds. These storms are a cause of the uprooting of trees. Besides, the crops are damaged and several other plants are eroded during floods.
Flood Prone Areas in India
A number of regions in India face the problem of floods year after year. The major areas affected by this natural calamity in the country are most of the Gangetic plains including North Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, Mumbai, Maharashtra, parts of Punjab and Haryana, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, the Brahmaputra valley and South Gujarat. Floods are known to have caused severe damage to these places in the past and are still a threat here.
Floods are one of the natural disasters that are known to have caused major destruction in various regions. It is time the government of India must take this issue seriously and come up with strong measures to control this problem.
Essay – 4 (600 words)
Floods occur when excessive rainfall in a particular region results in the overflow of water on the land that is mostly dry. It can also occur due to the overflow of water from water bodies like rivers, ocean, and lake. Floods are known to cause mass destruction. In certain regions, the destruction caused is so severe that it takes years to repair the loss.
Causes of Flood
Here is a closer look at the various causes of the flood:
- Heavy Rains
Flood like situation arises each time the downpour is more than the drainage system can absorb. At times, heavy rainfall occurring for a short period of time can cause floods while on other occasions light rainfall that goes on for days may result in flood-like situations.
- Melting of Snow
The mountains covered with snow during the winter season begin to melt as the temperature rises. The sudden melting of the ice usually causes the temperature to rise and this results in an enormous movement of water into the plains. The areas that do not have a proper drainage system to get rid of the excessive water face flood. This is often referred to as snowmelt flood.
- Breaking of Dam
Dams are created to hold water that flows down from a highland. The power in the water is employed to turn propellers for the generation of electricity. At times the dams break as they are unable to hold a large amount of water thereby resulting in a flood in the nearby areas. At times, excessive water is deliberately released from the dam so as to stop it from breaking. This may also result in a flood.
- Overflow of Water Bodies
Water bodies such as rivers may overflow at times and cause a flood-like situation in the nearby areas. The low-lying areas near the rivers are worst impacted during this time as the water flows downstream.
- Winds in the Coastal Region
Strong winds and hurricanes have the capacity of carrying the seawater to the dry coastal lands and this causes a flood. This can cause severe damage to the coastal regions. Hurricanes and Tsunamis are known to have caused major devastation in the coastal lands.
Global Warming: The Main Cause of Flood
The frequency of floods has increased in the recent past. It is said that the average sea temperature has increased a great deal due to global warming and this has resulted in the increased rate and sternness of tropical storms in the Caribbean. These storms are a cause of heavy downpour in the countries in their path. Global warming that is causing a rise in the temperature in the atmosphere is also a cause of the melting of glaciers and ice caps that is again a cause of flood in many regions. This is said to have a major impact on the polar ice caps in the times to come and the situation is likely to worsen.
The overall climatic conditions on earth have undergone a major change and global warming is said to be a cause of this transformation. While certain areas experience extreme floods others experience drought.
Though we cannot do much about the rain or the melting of the glaciers however we can certainly build good drainage systems to deal with the water they bring along. Many countries, such as Singapore that receive heavy rainfall for the most part of the year, have a really good drainage system. They come out clean even after days of a heavy downpour. The government of India must also build a good drainage system in order to avoid the problem of flood and the damage it does to the affected regions.