Water is a colorless and odorless substance that is essential for the survival of living beings. It is derived from various sources including rivers, lakes, oceans, and streams and has several uses. Water constitutes almost 71% of the Earth’s surface. On earth, it moves constantly via the water cycle. This is the cycle of evaporation and transpiration, precipitation, condensation, and runoff. Water is used in numerous ways and is vital to all living beings.
Short and Long Essay on Water
Essay 1 (300 words)
Water is one such substance without which we cannot imagine our life. Besides, quenching our thirst, this transparent chemical substance is used for several other purposes. It is used to accomplish several household tasks. Water is also used for agricultural purposes and is needed for industrial use. Here is a brief look at how it is used in different places.
It accounts for around 70% of the water used around the world. In agriculture, water is mainly used for the purpose of irrigation. In addition to this, it is also used for the raring of the livestock. Most of the water used for irrigation is extracted from rivers. Groundwater is also used for this purpose.
Rivers are thus said to be of great importance for the farmers. Not only do they provide water for irrigation but they also play a vital part in the water cycle.
Industrial use of water includes water used for the purpose of washing, diluting, cooling, transporting, fabricating, manufacturing and processing of various products. Thermal power plants, engineering, and pulp and paper industries are among the one that consumes the maximum amount of water.
At-home water is used for many purposes. This mainly includes drinking, cooking, bathing, washing utensils, washing clothes, cleaning houses, cars, and other vehicles, watering plants and for the purpose of sanitation.
Each country has its own system of water supply to ensure water reaches every household so that the aforementioned basic needs of its citizens are met. While water is used as it is for cleaning, washing and bathing purpose, it needs to be purified before drinking as well as prior to using it for the purpose of cooking.
Water is vital for the survival of mankind. However, unfortunately, it is being wasted at a rapid speed around the world. Everyone should contribute his/her bit towards saving water.
Essay 2 (400 words)
Water is derived from various sources. Rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, and rain are known to be some of the main sources of water. This free-flowing and readily available colorless, odorless substance is needed for domestic, agricultural as well as industrial use.
Sources of Water
The sources of water are mainly divided into two categories – Surface Water and Ground Water. Rainwater pours and collects on earth in the form of surface water as well as groundwater. Here is a brief look at both these sources of water:
- Surface Water: It is found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, seas, and other such sources. The water in lakes and rivers comes from rain and the melting of snow. The river water flows into the sea.
- Ground Water: It is found under the land. Water travels under the surface of the land by way of soil on the non-porous rocks and fills the opening in these rocks. The rocks that store and send out groundwater are known as aquifers. At times, the water stored in these rocks bursts in the form of springs due to high pressure. Groundwater is also extracted by digging wells and tube wells.
Water Available for Human Use
Our planet is rich in water with around three-fourth of its surface being covered with water. However, only a small part (just about 2.7%) of the total resources of water is available for human use.
Around 97.3% of the water on earth forms a part of the oceans. It is salty and cannot be used for the purpose of irrigation or any other agricultural use. It is not even good for industrial or domestic use. Out of the 2.7% freshwater available on earth, the inland surface water that is the water available from sources such as rivers, lakes, and ponds accounts for just about 0.02%. This water is crucial for the growth and survival of all forms of terrestrial and freshwater aquatic beings.
It is thus important to use it wisely. This point is emphasized time and again. However, its criticality is not yet recognized by the people. It is essential to understand the importance of saving water else we will have to learn it the hard way.
Many areas around the world get sufficient water supply. However, several others, especially those that are a part of the developing countries, face water deficit. The government of such countries must ensure the proper supply of water to various areas and the people must use water wisely and avoid any kind of wastage to ensure the flow.
Essay 3 (500 words)
Water (chemical formula H2O) is a transparent chemical substance. It is one of the basic necessities for every living being be it plants or animals. Just as air, sunlight, and food, water is needed for the proper growth and development of life on earth. Besides quenching our thirst, water is used for numerous other activities such as cleaning, washing, and cooking to name a few.
Properties of Water
Water is mainly known for five of its properties. Here is a brief about these properties:
- Cohesion and Adhesion
Cohesion also referred to as water’s attraction to other water molecules is one of the main properties of water. It is the polarity of water by way of which it is attracted to other water molecules. The hydrogen bonds present in water hold the water molecules together.
Adhesion is basically water’s attraction between molecules of varied substances. This substance bonds with any molecule it can form hydrogen bonds with.
- Lower Density of Ice
The hydrogen bonds of water turn into ice when cooled down. The hydrogen bonds are stable and maintain their crystal-like shape. The solid form of water which is ice is comparatively less dense as its hydrogen bonds are spaced out.
- Water’s High Polarity
Water has a high level of polarity. It is known to be a polar molecule. It is attracted to other polar molecules and ions. It can make hydrogen bonds and is thus a powerful solvent.
- Water’s High-Specific Heat
Water can moderate temperature owing to its high specific heat. It takes a long time when it comes to heating up. It holds its temperature for long when the heat is not applied.
- Water’s High Heat of Evaporation
This is another property of water that renders it the ability to moderate temperature. As the water evaporates off a surface it leaves a cooling effect on the same.
Avoid Wastage of Water
Water is required for most of the activities we indulge in our day-to-day life. It is necessary for us to conserve it else our planet will be devoid of freshwater in the years to come. Here are a few ways in which water can be conserved:
- Fix leaking taps immediately to avoid wastage of water without any delay.
- Avoid the use of a shower while bathing.
- Keep your tap off while brushing your teeth. Turn it on only when required.
- Wash full loads of laundry instead of half. This will not only save water but save a substantial amount of electricity too.
- Do not leave the water running while washing dishes.
- Use a rainwater harvesting system.
- Avoid using water hose for cleaning gutters. You can use brooms or other techniques instead.
- Use the right size of pans and other dishes while cooking and eating food. Avoid using those bigger than your requirement.
- Try to water your plants by hand rather than using sprinklers.
- Cover the pools so as to avoid water loss due to evaporation.
We must not waste water and contribute our bit towards its conservation. We must practice and promote activities and plans that help in conserving water and protecting its sources to meet the current and future demands of living beings.
Essay 4 (600 words)
Water is the most common liquid found on our planet. It is vital for the survival of every living being. Around 71.4% of Earth is covered with water. However, while most part of our planet is covered with water, fresh water that can actually be used for drinking, cooking and other activities is quite less. It is thus important to use this substance wisely.
Different Forms of Water
Water is present in three different forms on Earth – Solid, Liquid and Gas. Here is a brief look at these forms:
Solid: Water freezes at 0 degrees to form ice which is it’s solid-state. As water freezes, its molecules move apart and this makes ice less dense compared to water in its liquid state. This means that ice is lighter than the same volume of water in its liquid state. It can thus float on water.
Liquid: This is the most common form of water. Water in its liquid state is used in several ways including drinking, washing, cleaning, cooking, irrigating fields and processing and preparing various products in industries.
Gas: As the water boils, it changes from liquid to gas, often referred to as water vapor. Vapors are always present around us. When the water vapors cool, they form a cloud.
What is the Water Cycle?
The water cycle is the term given to the circulation of water on, below or above the Earth’s surface. It is the process wherein water circulates between land, oceans, and atmosphere. This involves precipitation, snowfall, drainage in rivers, lakes, and streams and its return to the atmosphere by way of evaporation and transpiration. The water cycle is also referred to as the hydrological cycle.
Water Scarcity in India
Like most of the other developing countries, many parts of India also face scarcity of water. People in the country do not get clean water for drinking and there is a water deficit for the purpose of sanitization as well. None of the cities in the country receives piped water 24/ 7. It is supplied for just a few hours each day mostly for a couple of hours in the morning and an hour or two in the evening. The quality of water has deteriorated in most of the water bodies in the country. This is because of the discharge of industrial and domestic waste in the water.
The scarcity of freshwater in the country is often attributed to lack of proper planning at the government’s end, corruption, increased rate of corporate privatization and an increasing amount of human and industrial waste that is discarded into water. The situation is expected to worsen in the times to come as the population of the country is likely to increase to 1.6 billion by 2050.
Here is a look at some of the other causes of water scarcity in India:
- Traditional techniques of irrigation employed in our country cause a lot of water loss.
- Lack of proper planning and distribution of water among domestic consumers, the agricultural sector and the industrial sector.
- The decline in traditional water recharging areas.
- Urban development has choked the groundwater resources.
- An increasing number of recreational activities associated with water.
While water is available on earth in abundance, it needs to be understood that the amount that can be put to use for various domestic, agricultural and industrial use is limited. It is essential to use it wisely so as to ensure it reaches everyone and is also available in abundance for our coming generations. The government must employ effective techniques to save water and distribute it evenly in various areas across the country. The general public, on the other hand, must use it wisely to ensure that it is not wasted.