A forest is basically a piece of land that encompasses a large number of trees and various varieties of plants. These beautiful creations of nature serve as a home for different species of animals. A vast expanse covered with dense trees, shrubs, mosses and a wide variety of plants is referred to as a forest. There are different types of forests around the world that are home to different varieties of flora and fauna.
Short and Long Essay on Forest
Essay – 1 (300 words)
Forest is generally referred to as a vast area covered with different types of plants and trees. These are mostly a habitat for various wild animals and different species of birds. Forests are formed of different layers that have their own importance and functions.
Importance of Forests
Forests form an important part of the ecological system. The need to preserve forests and grow more trees is often stressed upon. Some of the top reasons to do so are as follows:
- Purification of Atmosphere
It is common knowledge that plants exhale oxygen and inhale carbon dioxide. They also absorb other greenhouse gases that are harmful to the atmosphere. Trees and forests thus help in purifying the air we breathe as well as the atmosphere as a whole.
- Climate Control
Trees and soils regulate the atmospheric temperatures through the process of evapotranspiration. This aids in stabilizing the climate. Forests keep the temperature cool. They also have the power to build their own microclimates. For instance, Amazon creates atmospheric conditions that promote regular rainfall in the surrounding areas.
- Habitat for Animals and Birds
Forests serve as a home for numerous species of wild animals and birds. These are thus a great means to maintain biodiversity which is extremely essential for maintaining a healthy environment.
- Natural Watershed
The trees form a shade over the rivers and lakes running from the forest and keep them from drying.
- Source of Wood
Wood is used to build different pieces of furniture including tables, chairs, and beds among other things. Forests serve as a source of different types of woods.
- Means of Livelihood
Millions of people around the world rely on the forests for their livelihood directly or indirectly. Around 10 million are directly employed for the conservation and management of forests.
Forests are thus important for the survival of mankind. From the fresh air we breathe to the wood we require to build the bed we sleep on – Everything is derived from forests.
Essay – 2 (400 words)
Forest is a huge expanse covered with trees. There are different types of forests across the world. These have been categorized based on their types of soil, trees and other species of flora and fauna. A large part of the earth is covered with forests.
The Origin of the Term – Forest
The term forest comes from the Old French word fores meaning vast land mainly dominated by trees and plants. It was introduced in English as a term that referred to wildland that people explored for hunting. It may or may not be occupied by trees. If this was the case, some people claimed that the term forest was derived from the Medieval Latin word foresta that meant open wood. This term in Medieval Latin was specifically used to address the king’s royal hunting grounds.
Different Layers in a Forest
A forest is composed of different layers that play their part in holding the place together. These layers have been termed as the Forest Floor, Understory, Canopy, and Emergent layer. Among these, the Emergent layer exists only in the tropical rain forests. Here is a closer look at each of these layers:
- Forest Floor
This layer comprises of decomposing leaves, dead plants, twigs and trees, and animal droppings. The decaying of these things forms new soil and also provides the required nutrients to the plants.
This layer is composed of shrubs, bushes, and trees that are used to grow and live in canopy’s shade. It is known to be devoid of enough sunlight.
This is formed when a large number of branches, twigs, and leaves of huge trees intertwine. These fully grown trees receive the maximum amount of sunlight and form a protective layer for the rest of the plants and trees in the forest. This is known to be the thickest layer. It restricts much of the rain from reaching the plants and trees it covers. Monkeys, frogs, sloths, snakes, lizards and different species of birds are known to live here.
- Emergent Layer
This layer, that forms a part of the tropical rain forest, is composed of scattered tree branches and leaves that layer up above the canopy. The tallest trees reach this place and form a part of this layer.
Forests are an essential part of the environment. However, unfortunately, human beings are cutting trees blindly to serve different purposes thereby disturbing the ecological balance. The need to save trees and forests must be taken more seriously.
Essay – 3 (500 words)
A forest is a vast land that encompasses a large number of trees, vines, shrubs and other varieties of plants. Forests also consist of mosses, fungi, and algae. These are home for a wide variety of birds, reptiles, microorganisms, insects, and animals. Forests maintain biodiversity on earth and are thus important for maintaining a healthy environment on the planet.
Types of Forests
Forests around the world have been classified into different categories. Here is a look at the various types of forests that form a part of the earth’s ecological system:
- Tropical Rainforests
These are extremely dense forests and majorly or entirely consist of evergreen trees that remain green all round the year. You can see lush greenery around however since these are covered with a canopy and an emergent layer over the same, these are devoid of enough sunlight and are thus mostly dark and damp. They receive plenty of rainfall all round the year but still, the temperature here is high as these are located near the equator. Numerous species of animals, birds, and fishes breed here.
- Sub-Tropical Forests
These forests are situated in the north and south of tropical forests. These forests mostly experience a drought-like situation. The trees and plants here are adapted to sustain the summer drought.
- Deciduous Forests
These forests are mainly home for trees that lose their leaves each year. Deciduous forests mostly penetrate in regions that experience mild winters and warm yet moist summers. These can be found in different parts of the world including Europe, North America, New Zealand, Asia, and Australia. Walnut, oak, maple, hickory and chestnut trees are mostly found here.
- Temperate Forests
Temperate forests see the growth of deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees. Located in North-Eastern Asia, Eastern North America and Western and Eastern Europe, these forests receive enough rainfall.
- Montane Forests
These are known as cloud forests. This is because these forests receive most of their downpour from the fog or mist that comes from the lowlands. These are mostly located in the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones. These forests experience cold weather as well as intense sunlight. Conifers occupy a large part of these forests.
- Plantation Forests
These are basically large farms that grow cash crops such as coffee, tea, sugarcane, oil palms, cotton, and oilseeds. Plantation forests produce about 40% of the industrial wood. These are particularly known for producing sustainable timber and fiber.
- Mediterranean Forests
These forests are situated around the coasts of the Mediterranean, Chile, California and Western Australia. These have a mix of softwood and hardwood trees and almost all the trees here are evergreen.
- Coniferous Forests
These forests are found near the poles, mainly the northern hemisphere, and experience a cold and windy climate all through the year. They experience the growth of hardwood and conifer trees. The growth of pines, firs, hemlocks, and spruces is a common sight here. The conifer trees are evergreen and well adapted to the drought-like condition here.
Forests are a beautiful creation of nature. Different parts of our planet encompass different types of forests that are home to various plants and animals and a means of livelihood for numerous people.
Essay – 4 (600 words)
A vast land covered with trees, plants and shrubs and mostly home for different species of wild animals are referred to as a forest. Forests are an essential part of the Earth’s ecological system. They help in maintaining the planet’s climate, purifies the atmosphere, protects the watersheds, are a natural habitat for the animals and a major source of wood that is used for the production of several products used in our day to day life.
India – Among the Countries with Largest Forest Cover
India is among the top ten forest-rich countries in the world with the others being Australia, Brazil, China, Canada, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Russian Federation, United States of America, Indonesia and Sudan. These countries along with India constitute around 67% of the total forest area in the world.
Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Maharashtra are among the states that have the largest forest cover in India.
Top Forests in India
India is known to encompass several lush green forests. Many of these have even been turned into tourist spots. People from far and wide visit these to experience the wilderness and enjoy the serenity they offer. Here is a look at some of the top forests in the country:
- Sundarbans, West Bengal
The Sundarban forests located in West Bengal top the list when it comes to the most alluring forests in the country. These are home to the white tiger which is a variant of the royal Bengal tiger.
- Gir Forest, Gujarat
Spread across an area of more than 1,412 sq km in Gujarat’s Junagadh district, the Gir forest is home for the Asiatic Lion.
- Jim Corbett, Uttarakhand
Established in the year 1936, this place is a delight for wildlife lovers. This is one such forest in the country that is known to attract the maximum number of tourists from around the world.
- Ranthambore, Rajasthan
Ranthambore located near the town of Sawai Madhopur in the Indian state of Rajasthan is home to leopards, tigers and marsh crocodiles. It is also known for Padam Talao Lake that grows an abundance of water lilies.
- Khasi Forests, Meghalaya
This place in northeast India is known for its lush greenery. The Khasi forests receive a high amount of rainfall and remain green all round the year.
Forestry in India
Forestry in India is a major rural industry. It is a means of livelihood for a large number of people. India is known to produce a vast range of processed forest products. These do not just include those made from wood but also a substantial amount of non-wood products. Its non-wood products include essential oils, medicinal herbs, resins, flavors, fragrances and aroma chemicals, gums, latex, handicrafts, incense sticks, and thatching materials.
The Problem of Deforestation
Deforestation is the process of clearing trees from a large part of the forest for purposes such as farming and construction of buildings. Trees are never re-planted on such land.
Statistics reveal that around half of the forests around the world have been destroyed ever since the evolution of the industrial age. The number is likely to increase in the times to come as industrialists are continually using the forest lands for personal gain. A large number of trees are also cut for producing various goods made from wood and other components of the trees.
Deforestation has a negative impact on the environment. Some of the problems it causes are soil erosion, disruption of the water cycle, climate change and loss of biodiversity.
Forests are a boon for mankind. India especially has been blessed with some of the most beautiful forests that are home for many rarer species of birds and animals. The importance of forests must be recognized and the government must take measures to control the issue of deforestation.