Pollution Essay – For Students and Children In English

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The word pollution refers to the introduction of contaminants (pollutants) into the environment, having an adverse effect on it. Pollution is caused mainly due to human-induced factors like – industrialization, deforestation, inefficient waste disposal, etc. Pollution can be further classified into various categories like – water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, plastic pollution, land pollution, light pollution, radioactive pollution, etc.

Long and Short Essay on Pollution

Essay 1 (200 Words)


In layman terms, pollution occurs when something unwanted enters into your natural environment. The release of toxic gas on the burning of plastic is pollution; mixing harmful chemicals with the soil when it is mixed with chemical fertilizers, is pollution; when the disposed waste from your house, somehow reaches into the open environment, it causes pollution. Similarly, there could be several other examples of pollution. As for now, we will discuss the types of pollution.

Types of Pollution

The five major types of pollution are given below-

1) Air Pollution

Its main source is the burning of fossil fuels by transportation vehicles and smoke emanated from the factories.

2) Water Pollution

Its main source is the runoff water from urban settlements, agricultural fields and the release of byproducts from factories.

3) Soil Pollution

Soil pollution could be caused by several factors like – improper disposal of waste, the use of harmful chemicals in the agriculture industry, etc.

4) Light Pollution

Light Pollution refers to more than the required presence of light in a polluted area, which is large enough to interfere with the natural environment.

5) Noise Pollution

Noise pollution refers to the presence of excessive noise generated by human activities like road transport vehicles, jet planes, a busy market, loudspeaker announcements, etc.


Whatever may be the type of pollution, it always has a degrading effect on the environment and human health or else affects one or the other living species on earth. Light pollution confuses roosting birds, often causing fatal accidents.


Essay 2 (500 Words)


Today, the very existence of human life on planet earth, along with the life of other flora and fauna is threatened up to a large extent by the pollution. Pollution affects everything essential for survival – natural resources, species, health, etc.

Effects of Pollution on the Environment

Pollution has a widespread effect on the environment as discussed below-

1) Polluted Air

Pollution contaminates the natural air, making it harmful to breathe. For example, toxic gases released by transportation vehicles mix with the air, resulting in its pollution. When this air is inhaled by a human or animal, it causes severe respiratory ailments. Some species of animals and plants, which are highly sensitive to such kind of pollution, die.

2) Polluted Water Bodies

Improper disposal of waste generated by areas of human settlements causes this waste to reach our naturally occurring water bodies in the form of runoff. The urban waste consists of several toxic compounds including plastic. This waste is nonbiodegradable and stays in the water, making it hazardous to consume. It also results in the depletion of aquatic species population which are highly sensitive to pollution.

3) Soil Toxicity

Pollution caused due to agricultural activities like the use of chemical fertilizers, resulting in toxicity of the soils. Chemical fertilizers are made up of harmful chemical compounds, which got mixed with the soil, ultimately making it toxic. It affects the species of flora as well as fauna which depend on the purity of the soil for their survival.

4) Species Depletion

One of the most prominent effects of pollution on the environment is the depletion of species. When polluting substances get mixed with our natural resources, it harms the living species in some way or the other. Gaseous pollutants, cause severe respiratory ailments and decrease the life expectancy of the fauna and flora as well.

5) Global Warming

Global warming is one of the main effects of pollution which leads to a number of environmental effects. Gaseous pollutants like Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) released due to the burning of fossil fuels, stays in the atmosphere resulting in the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse effect, on the other hand, is responsible for a number of factors like unexpected, climatic changes resulting in droughts, famine, etc; depletion in aquatic species like coral reefs, fishes, etc.


The effect of pollution on the environment is far and wide. Not only the pollution effects present but also threaten the future of several species if no concrete action to prevent pollution is taken. The rate at which the pollution is being damaged is way too more than it could be repaired. It might take centuries to reverse the damages that we have done to the environment, that too it won’t be an easy task and will require strict discipline and will to tackle pollution.

Essay 3 (600 Words)


Pollution has become a global concern in today’s time. It has changed the face of our beautiful Earth. It is slowly destroying our environment and making it difficult to survive here. Several species of flora and fauna have become extinct because of the harmful impact of pollution and many others are on the verge of extinction.

Types of Pollution

Here is a look at the different types of pollution, their causes and impact on the environment and life on Earth.

  1. Air Pollution

Air pollution is said to be the most hazardous pollution. The primary cause of this pollution is industrial and vehicular smoke. The harmful gases emitted by these sources pollute the air and make it difficult to breathe. The increase in the number of factories and vehicles has led to a rise in air pollution. This has given rise to numerous health problems. Bronchitis and lung diseases are two common health problems caused due to air pollution.

Air pollution is not only impacting human health but is also deteriorating the environment by contributing to global warming.

  1. Water Pollution

The industrial and household waste often finds its way into the rivers and other water bodies thereby polluting them. Our once pure and pious water bodies have now become a breeding ground for several diseases as these have been filled with a large number of waste plastic products, chemical wastes, and other non-biodegradable wastes. These pollutants mixed in water are impacting our health. Water pollution has especially become a threat to marine creatures. Several of them die each day as a result of this pollution.

  1. Land Pollution

The industrial and household waste that doesn’t get dumped in the water keeps lying on the land. While attempts are made to destroy or recycle it, a large amount of it does not get disposed of. This causes land pollution which becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes, flies and other insects that cause various deadly diseases.

It also refers to the contamination of soil due to waste products that eventually turn toxic. Soil pollution is also caused due to regular usage of insecticides, pesticides and other strong chemicals. This type of pollution is often referred to as soil pollution.

  1. Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is caused due to high-intensity sound made by machines installed in factories. It is also caused due to the vehicles on the road, the bursting of firecrackers and music played on loudspeakers. Noise pollution can cause stress and impact the brain adversely. It can also cause hearing impairment.

  1. Light Pollution

Light Pollution is an excess, unwanted or inappropriate light over a   particular area. Light pollution may be in the form of Urban Glow- Excessive unwanted glare over an urban area, Trespass- light falling without want, intent or need, Glare- Excessive light or bright light and Clutter- An unwanted group of lights like in an overlit urban areas.

  1. Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive Pollution refers to the presence of unwanted radioactive substances in the atmosphere. Radioactive Pollution could be a result of radioactive weapon explosion or testing, mining and handling radioactive substances or accidents in radioactive power plants. Radioactive substances present in the atmosphere pollute even natural water resources, making them harmful to consumption or even domestic use.

  1. Thermal Pollution

Thermal Pollution refers to a sudden change in the temperature of water bodies; a change that is big enough to disturb its ecological balance. The use of water as coolants in various industries is the main reason for Thermal Pollution. When the water used as a coolant is suddenly released back into the water bodies, it decreases its overall oxygen content, as gases are less soluble in hotter liquids; as a result, aquatic life suffers due to sudden change in temperature and oxygen scarcity.

  1. Visual Pollution

Anything human-made, which obstructs your view constitutes visual pollution. It includes billboards, signboards, antennas, trash cans, electric poles, towers, wires, vehicles, buildings, etc. Constant exposure to visual pollution may result in eye fatigue, stress, and depression. Unplanned and nonregulated construction of habitation is the major cause of Visual Pollution.


Pollution is ruining our environment day by day. We must take it as our responsibility to reduce pollution by following the aforementioned methods in order to make our world a better place to live. If we continue to ignore this problem and keep adding to the pollution rather than looking for ways to reduce it, we shall soon have to face fatal consequences.

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Shefali Ahuja

Shefali is Essaybank’s editor-in-chief. She describes herself as a teacher and professional writer and she enjoys getting more people into writing and answering people’s questions. She closely follows the latest trends in the article industry in order to keep you all up-to-date with the latest news.