India is a country with large variations in seasons and other environmental aspects. In a nutshell, there are four basic seasons in India namely the winter season, summer season, rainy season and lastly the spring season. The intensity of each of the four seasons in India varies from region to region depending upon the topographical factors, latitude, and longitude of the region.
Short and Long Essay on Seasons in India
Essay 1 (300 Words)
Typically, the seasons in India are divided into 4 categories which are summer (March-May), winter (December–February), monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon also known as northeast monsoon (October–November). The span of these seasons varies from 2.5 to 3 months.
During the winter season, the temperature varies from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius. The northern part experiences snowfall along with rain. December and January are usually the coldest months. In wintertime, it is observed that nights are longer than days.
India being a tropical country, summer is a bit extreme in certain parts. The temperature is highest in April and May and varies from 32 to 40 degrees Celsius. In summer the days appear comparatively longer than nights.
The Indian Monsoons typically start in June and extend till September. In India, the majority of precipitation is caused by the southwest monsoons. The southwest monsoon originates from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
The months of October and November fall under the post-monsoon season. Some parts of India receive their precipitation from the northeast monsoon such as Tamil Nadu. This season marks the transition between a wet and dry season. The temperature slowly starts lowering during this transition.
So, these are the seasons of India as classified by the meteorological department. The span and intensity of these seasons are not fixed and are subject to change depending upon certain external environmental factors such as air pressure, the direction of air currents, cloud formation, anthropological factors such as deforestation and pollution, etc. As the environmental factors experience major changes, these changes are reflected largely in the duration and intensity of the seasons in India and also the neighboring parts. Hence, due to the vast geographic scale and varied topography generalizations cannot be made for the seasons of India.
Essay 2 (400 words)
Anthropological factors such as pollution have caused havoc to the generally smooth seasonal cycles of India. Various activities such as deforestation, urbanization, industrialization, etc have brought an adverse effect on the seasonal changes in India.
Excessive deforestation for the construction of residential buildings and industries to cope with the growing demands of the people has led to the loss of valuable green cover in the country which in turn has caused disturbance in the rainfall pattern and has also led to the loss of valuable soil cover and floods in various parts of the countries.
Causes of Adverse Effect on Indian Climate
The major cause of climate change is as follows:
- Burning of fossil fuels
- Emission of greenhouse gases
Due to the change in rainfall and temperature patterns people have to face extreme climatic conditions. Indian monsoons lead to floods in parts of the northeast and northwest while the southern parts experience drought to the extreme levels. These changes are confusing scientists and meteorological experts for a considerably long time. It is difficult to assign exact reasons to these adversities. These changes can be permanent or the climate might return to its normal state.
Due to the increase in C02 concentrations in the atmosphere along with the stimulation of the production of greenhouse gases, winters are becoming relatively warmer in tropical countries. The presence of these gases in the atmosphere along with the presence of favorable conditions for their oxidation has led to the thinning of the ozone layer. The ozone layer obstructs the harmful UV radiation from entering the earth’s atmosphere. But due to the damage caused by the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer, the radiations make it through the earth’s atmosphere thus increasing the temperature on the surface and contributing to certain problems such as skin cancer.
According to past records, it is true that climate change is a natural phenomenon but the research from the past few decades suggests that the sudden exponential changes are a result of increasing population and industrialization. Many scientists argue about the irreversibility of these climatic conditions and changes but many others are optimistic about the new researches and enlightenment among people about the changing scenario.
Numerous scientists have sought out ways to reverse the effects of global warming or we can say that at least they’ve all tried. Numerous books, research papers, documentaries, movies, etc have been introduced on the growing concern of global warming and its association with climate change.
Essay 3 (500 Words)
In India, different regions experience different climatic conditions. While in summers, certain regions in the country may experience extreme heat others may have a rather less hot but humid climate.
What Causes Change In Seasons?
The tropical and sub-tropical parts in India consist of four seasons namely winter, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon. As the change in day and night is caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis similarly the change in seasons is caused by the revolution of the earth around the sun in elliptical orbits. The difference in the intensity of seasons in different parts is a result of the slight tilt of the earth.
At different times during the year, the northern or the southern axis is closer to the sun. During this time the part closer to the sun experiences summer as it receives direct heat from the sun. Whereas in winter, the earth moves away from the sun in the elliptical orbit and hence the sun rays have to travel a longer distance to reach the earth, which results in lower temperatures on the earth at that time of the year.
The above stated are the natural processes that bring about the change in the seasons around the year. The changes by these processes are subtle and people can easily adapt to the whereas the change in seasons caused by anthropological factors such as emission of greenhouse gases is more adverse and extreme and cause difficulties to living creatures and even property.
Geographical Aspect of the Indian Lands
India’s geography is extremely contrasting at different places: With the Thar desert in the west and Himalayas in the north. This diversity in topography affects the climatic and cultural conditions in various parts of the country.
India can be regarded as both tropical and subtropical as the tropic of cancer passes roughly through its center. The Northern Part is kept relatively warm as the Himalayas act as a barrier to the cold central Asian wind entering the country. Extreme temperatures recorded in India are 51 degrees Celsius in Rajasthan and the lowest being -45 degree Celsius in Kashmir.
The Physical Features are divided into six regions as stated below:-
- Northern Mountains
- Northern Plains
- Indian Desert
- Coastal Plains
- Peninsular Plateau
A calamity is addressed as a disaster when it has a severe effect on life and property which results in death and loss of valuable monetary assets. Disasters due to seasonal changes and the effects of it are a bit common in India. Natural disasters may be the result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, etc. The areas subject to heavy rainfall are more prone to flash floods and cyclones whereas certain areas in the southern parts experience severe droughts.
In colder regions of Himalayas and areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim, snowstorms, and avalanches are the cause for the destruction of life and property. Other disasters include heat waves, hailstorms, landslides, etc. Heatwave causes many health problems and at times even death. Hailstorms destroy the standing crops and also affect life and property. Cyclones are more frequent in the coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal.
India is a land of diversity and this diversity can also be seen in its seasons. Nature is truly incredible. Change in season throughout the year offers a good experience to the inhabitants of the country. However, extreme weather conditions can at times be hazardous.
Essay 4 (600 words)
According to the Hindu calendar, the seasons in India are classified into six types. These are Vasanth Ritu (Spring Season), Sharad Ritu (Early Autumn), Varsha Ritu (Monsoon Season), Sishira Ritu (Late Autumn), Greeshma Ritu (Summer Season) and Hemantha Ritu (Winter Season).
Classification of Seasons by the Hindu Calendar
The classification by the Hindu calendar includes the names of the seasons as in Sanskrit, the cultural and festive values associated with these seasons. In other aspects, these classifications are similar to those made by the Meteorological Department of India.
Vasanth Ritu or the Spring Season is a time of moderate climate that is neither too hot nor too cool. Spring season brings about pleasant weather along with the bloom of flowers and maturing of the shrubs and trees. Usually, this is the most loved season due to pleasant and lively weather. An important Hindu Festival – Mahashivratri falls in Vasantha Ritu.
Sharad Ritu or the autumn season marks the onset of winter and acts as a transition period between hot, scorching heat rays and cool winter winds. This is the time when trees shed their leaves and many of the Hindu festivals such a Diwali (Festival of lights), Navratri and Durga Puja fall during this time. The mid-time of Sharad Ritu is the autumnal equinox. It takes place when the earth’s axis is inclined neither away from nor in the direction of the sun.
Varsha Ritu or the Monsoon/ Rainy season is when it rains heavily in many parts of India. It starts usually in June and extends until September. The onset of this season is a mark of certain Indian festivals such as Janmashtami (Birth of Lord Krishna), RakshaBandhan, etc. India being a largely agricultural governed country, this season is extremely important. Fair rainfall ensures good crop production and happy farmers.
Shishir Ritu or the late autumn season gives way to many important harvest festivals. Festivals such as Lohri, Pongal, etc are celebrated during this season. Shishir Ritu starts with the winter solstice when the sun reaches its highest points in the sky. It usually starts in December and extends till January.
Greeshma Ritu or the Summer Season is when the temperature starts increasing across various parts of the country due to the fact that the earth is revolving very close to the sun on the elliptical orbit. It usually prevails from April to early June. Festivals such a Guru Purnima fall under this Ritu. India being a tropical country, the weather during this season is extreme and sometimes unbearable. In some parts, the temperature is raised to as high as 45 degrees Celsius. In GreeshmaRitu, the day seems longer than the night which is the complete opposite of the scenario during Hemantha Ritu or the winter season.
Hemantha Ritu or the winter season prevails from early December to February. Winter season in the western countries is extreme and tiresome whereas in various parts of India pleasant weather prevails in the winter months.
So the above stated was a brief explanation about the various seasons of India as classified by the Hindu calendar. Many bifurcations have been made relating to the seasons in India. Different entities and organizations such as The Meteorological department of India have made these classifications.
The duration of these seasons is not exactly constant and is subject to change with the alterations in external factors such as air pressure, temperature, the direction of air currents, amount of precipitation, etc.
India is one such country that enjoys all the seasons. People living to get a chance to wear different kinds of outfits as the weather changes. The food preferences of people also change according to the seasons. So, they enjoy different delicacies to treat their taste buds during different seasons.