One of the major hindrances in the growth of any country is unemployment. Unemployment is a serious issue in India. Lack of education, lack of employment opportunities and performance issues are some of the factors that lead to unemployment. The government of India must take effective steps to eliminate this problem. One of the main problems faced by developing countries is unemployment. It is not only one of the major obstacles in the country’s economic growth but also has several other negative repercussions on the individual as well as society as a whole.
Long and Short Essay on Unemployment
Essay 1 (250 words)
Unemployment is a curse to society. It does not only impact the individuals but also society as a whole. There are a number of factors that lead to unemployment. Here is a look at these factors in detail and also the possible solutions to control this problem.
Factors Leading to Unemployment in India
- Growth in Population
The rapid growth in the population of the country is one of the leading causes of unemployment.
- Slow Economic Growth
The slow economic growth of the country results in lesser employment opportunities for people, thereby leading to unemployment.
- Seasonal Occupation
A large part of the country’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector. With this being a seasonal occupation, it provides work opportunities only for a certain part of the year.
- Slow Growth of Industrial Sector
The growth of the industrial sector in the country is slow. Thus, employment opportunities in this sector are limited.
- Fall in Cottage Industry
The production in the cottage industry has fallen drastically and this has left several artisans unemployed.
Possible Solutions to Eradicate Unemployment
- Population Control
It is high time the government of India should take stern steps to control the population of the country.
- Education System
The education system in India focuses majorly on the theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system must be improved to generate skilled manpower.
The government must take steps to boost the industrial sector to create greater opportunities for people.
- Overseas Companies
The government must encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to generate more employment opportunities.
- Employment Opportunities
Employment opportunities must be created in rural areas for seasonally unemployed people.
The problem of unemployment in the country has persisted for long. While the government has launched several programs for employment generation, desirable progress has not been achieved. The policy-makers and the citizens should make collective efforts in creating more jobs as well as acquiring the right skill-set for employability.
Essay 2 (400 words)
Unemployment in India can be divided into many categories including disguised unemployment, open unemployment, educated unemployment, cyclic unemployment, seasonal unemployment, technological unemployment, underemployment, structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment, and casual unemployment. Before leaning about these types of unemployment in detail let us understand as to who exactly is said to be unemployed. It is basically a person who is willing to work and is seeking an employment opportunity, however, he is unable to find one. Those who choose to remain unemployed voluntarily or are unable to work due to some physical or mental health issues are not counted as unemployed.
Here is a detailed look at the different types of unemployment:
When more than the required numbers of people are employed at a place, it is said to be disguised unemployment. Removing these people does not impact productivity.
As the term suggests, this is the type of unemployment that is seen during certain seasons of the year. The industries most affected by seasonal unemployment include the agricultural industry, resorts, and ice factories, to name a few.
This is when a vast number of laborers are unable to seek a job that provides them a regular income. The problem occurs as the labor force increases at a much greater rate compared to the economy’s growth rate.
The use of technological equipment has also led to unemployment by reducing the requirement of manual labor.
This kind of unemployment occurs because of a major change in the country’s economic structure. This is said to be a result of technological advancement and economic development.
A reduction in the overall level of business activities leads to cyclic unemployment. However, the phenomenon is short-run.
The inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skill and flawed education system are some of the reasons why the educated lot remains unemployed.
In this kind of unemployment people either take up a job on a part-time basis or take up work for which they are over-qualified.
This occurs when the demand for the labor force and its supply are not synced appropriately.
This is long-term unemployment that continues in a country due to the rapid increase in population and a low level of economic development.
This may occur because of a sudden fall in demand, short-term contracts or shortage of raw material.
Though the government has launched several programs to control each type of unemployment, however, the results are far from satisfactory. The government needs to devise more effective strategies for employment generation.
Essay 3 (500 words)
Unemployment is a serious problem. There are a number of factors including lack of education, lack of employment opportunities, lack of skill, performance issues and increasing population rate that lead to this issue in India. Unemployment has a number of negative repercussions on the individuals as well as the country as a whole. The government has taken several initiatives to control this problem. Some of these are mentioned here in detail.
Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment
- Training for Self Employment
Launched in 1979, the program was named, National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It is aimed at reducing unemployment among youth in rural areas.
- Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)
In the year 1978-79, the Indian government launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme to ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas. A sum of Rs. 312 crore was spent on this program and as many as 182 lakh families benefited from it.
- Employment in Foreign Countries
The government helps people get employment in overseas companies. Special agencies have been established to hire people to work in other countries.
- Small and Cottage Industries
In an attempt to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Several people are making their living with this initiative.
- The Swaran Jayanti Rozgar Yojana
This program is aimed at providing self-employment as well as wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It includes two plans:
- Urban Self-Employment Programme
- Urban Wage Employment Programme
- Employment Assurance Scheme
The program was launched in as many in 1994 as 1752 backward blocks in the country. It provided unskilled manual work for 100 days to the poor unemployed people living in rural areas.
- Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)
The program was started in 13 states and covered as many as 70 drought-prone districts with an aim to remove seasonal unemployment. In its seventh plan, the government spent Rs. 474 crore.
- Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
The program launched in April 1989 aimed at providing employment to a minimum of one member in each poor rural family for a period of fifty to a hundred days a year. The employment opportunity is provided in the person’s vicinity and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.
- Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)
There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor is given subsidy to establish micro-enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for laborers in cities having a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, urban poor in the cities is given employment opportunities matching their skills.
- Employment Guarantee Scheme
Unemployed people are provided economic assistance under this scheme. It has been launched in a number of states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, etc.
Apart from this, many other similar programs have been launched to reduce unemployment.
Though the government has been taking several measures to control the problem of unemployment in the country a lot still needs to be worked upon in order to curb this problem in true sense.
Essay 4 (600 words)
Unemployment is a grave issue. There are a number of factors that lead to it. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skill set, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly increasing population. Here is a look at the unemployment statics in the country, the consequences of unemployment and the measures taken by the government to control it.
Unemployment: Statistics in India
The Ministry of Labour and Employment of India keeps the records of unemployment in the country. The measure of unemployment is calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial amount of time during the 365 days preceding the date of the collation of data and are still seeking employment.
India saw an average of 7.32 percent unemployment rate from 1983 to 2013 with a highest of 9.40 percent in the year 2009 and a record low of 4.90 percent in 2013. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate shot up significantly with 8.7 percent for women and 4.3 percent for men.
Consequences of Unemployment
Unemployment leads to serious socio-economic issues. It does not only impact the individuals but society as a whole. Shared below are some of the major consequences of unemployment:
- Increase in Poverty
It goes without saying that the increase in the unemployment rate results in an increase in the rate of poverty in the country. Unemployment is largely responsible for hampering the economic growth of the country.
- Increase in Crime Rate
Unable to find a suitable job, the unemployed lot usually takes the path of crime as this seems to be an easy way of making money. One of the main causes of rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes is unemployment.
- Exploitation of Labour
Employees usually take advantage of the scarcity of jobs in the market by offering low wages. Unable to find a job matching their skill people usually settle for a low-paying job. Employees are also forced to work for more than the set number of hours each day.
- Political Instability
Lack of employment opportunities results in loss of faith in the government and this often leads to political instability.
- Mental Health
The dissatisfaction level among unemployed people increases and it can gradually lead to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.
- Loss of Skill
Staying out of job for a long period of time makes one dull and eventually results in the loss of skill. It also lowers a person’s self-confidence to a large extent.
Government Initiatives to Reduce Unemployment
The government of India has taken several initiatives to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed lot in the country. Some of these include the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojna (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program (PMIUPEP) Development of Organized Sector, Employment Exchanges, Employment in Foreign Countries, Small and Cottage Industries, Employment Guarantee Scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana, to name a few.
Besides offering employment opportunities by way of these programs, the government is also sensitizing the importance of education and providing skill training to unemployed people.
Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in society. While the government has taken initiatives to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. The various factors causing this problem must be studied well to look for effective and integrated solutions for the same. It is time the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.