Water Pollution Essay – For Students and Children In English

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Water pollution is a topic of great environmental concern in today’s context. Water is a rare resource, much essential for life on earth. It is not only water that is essential but it also must be clean and safe to use. Polluted and contaminated water is good for nothing and is also hazardous to use or consume. The main causes of water are human-induced and include activities like industrialization, agricultural activities, improper waste disposal, etc.

Long and Short Essay on Water Pollution

Essay 1 (250 Words)


Water Pollution occurs when external pollutants enter the otherwise clean and safe natural water resources. Due to the growing human intervention and expansion of urban settlements, water pollution has become a painful reality today.

Water Pollution Sources

The sources of water pollution are many and almost all of them are generated due to human activities. Industries emit millions of gallons of toxic smoke and material waste which is left directly into the air, water bodies and natural resources. Most of such waste from the industries are left directly into the water bodies without any kind of treatment. Most of the industrial waste is toxic in nature and in turn, increases the toxicity of the water it reaches.

Also, the domestic waste that is generated every day in the millions of households around the world contains waste plastic materials, chemicals, oils, metals, etc. Most of the households lack a proper waste disposal mechanism and mostly the waste is directly dumped into the environment.

How to Stop Water Pollution

Water pollution could be prevented considerably by making people aware of its causes and its effects on life and the planet. People must take part in cleaning campaigns wherein a group or community takes up the task of cleaning the water bodies every weekend or at least once a month.

Moreover, strict laws need to be formed and strictly implemented with the objective of eliminating water pollution. Strict monitoring could prevent people and organizations from polluting and will improve accountability as well.


Water pollution today has become a topic of hot debate and concern for environmentalists and scientists. It threatens the future of all the living species on the planet earth. Water is an essential commodity to live added by the fact that only 2% of the water on earth is freshwater that we use. We can’t afford to pollute it further and must take steps for the reversal of the damage that we have already done.

Essay 2 (350 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the introduction of pollutants into our water bodies. These pollutants are primarily generated by human-induced activities and pose a threat to our natural water resources.

Water Pollution Prevention

There are several things one could do to prevent water pollution. Some of them are simple enough to be taken by an individual while some require collective efforts. However, the efforts need to be repeatedly done in order to preserve our natural water resources. Some of the implementable ways to prevent water pollution are given below-

1) Keep your drain free of Contaminants and Chemicals.

An average household generates all kinds of waste including chemicals, disposed medicines, and other hazardous compounds. We must take care while disposing of our household waste and ensure that any such waste didn’t reach the sewage system.

2) Prevent use of Polythene

Polythene bags are widely used today in every household. They are light, could carry heavyweight, and easy to store. But polythene bags constitute a major threat to water resources. The polythene that we dispose of our houses, finds its way into the water bodies. Being non-biodegradable, it just lays there, polluting water and making it toxic.

3) Conserve Water

Always try to conserve water while doing your daily activities, whether it’s cooking, shaving, bathing, gardening or cleaning, etc.  Water conservation can also be achieved by repairing all the faulty taps in your house and locality as well.

4) Reuse and Recycle

Much of the waste that we generate in houses could be reused and recycled if only we make a little effort for it. Wastes like automobile oil are disposed into the drain and easily reach into rivers and streams. This is really hazardous to the purity of water and also to the life of organisms that live in water. On the other hand, automobile oil can be reused for several other lubrication purposes.


Water pollution today has become a cause of great concern for human health as well as the environment. Water is an essential commodity without which life can’t be imagined. It is the duty of all to take steps for keeping water pollution-free and also to conserve it, for a healthy future of the planet.

Essay 3 (400 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies like rivers, lakes, ponds, and oceans. It is caused when the pollutants generated by human activities like industrialization, urban waste, littering, etc., enter our water bodies and pollute them.

Types of Water Pollution

As water comes from many sources, there are many types of water pollution. The most common types of water pollution are described below.

1) Agricultural/Nutrients Pollution

Some of the wastewater and agricultural waste contain high nutrients levels. These nutrient-rich contaminants cause algae growth, making the water unfit for drinking and other purposes. Algae use the oxygen content in water making oxygen scarce for other organisms, resulting in their death.

2) Sewage and Waste Water

Sewage and wastewater from urban settlements are rich in various soluble and non-soluble impurities like mercury, plastic, rotten food, debris, chemicals, etc. When these pollutants reach water bodies, some of them float over the surface while some sink at the bottom. The soluble impurities change the composition of water as well. This is a dangerous situation for all the living organisms in the water body.

3) Oxygen Depletion

Any waterbody contains several microorganisms including aerobic and anaerobic organisms. When the biodegradable waste reaches into the water bodies and decays, it encourages the growth of more microorganisms, consequently using more oxygen, in turn, depleting the oxygen level.

4) Pollution of Ground Water

The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers pollute groundwater resources. The chemicals get mixed with soil and are soaked into the ground with rain, reaching the underground water reserve. This contaminated water reaches our wells and other sources of water, making its consumption harmful.

Prevention of Water Pollution

Water Pollution can be prevented by taking these simple steps –

  • Don’t pour down fat or oil in your kitchen sink.
  • Avoid improper disposing of harmful chemicals and other contaminants.
  • Never let unused or expired medicines reach the house drainage system.
  • Segregate the waste as solid, liquid, degradable and non-degradable and ensure its proper disposal.
  • Avoid using pesticides and chemical fertilizers as much as you can.


Water pollution is a growing environmental concern which depletes one of our very essential natural resources. It is only through great determination and political will that we can succeed in saving water from getting contaminated.


Essay 4 (500 Words)


Water Pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies, primarily due to human activities. Water bodies include lakes, rivers, ponds, oceans and underground water resources. Water Pollution occurs when waste from industrial and other sources enters into the water bodies, resulting in the contamination of water, moreover, it is also harmful to aquatic life as well as to humans.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water is an essential natural resource and very useful for life on earth. Causes of water pollution are many and always include human activities. The various causes of water pollution are given below-

1) Urban Sewage

The sewage from urban settlements is usually treated with chemicals and then released into the water bodies after mixing with fresh water. Most of the time, the sewage is not treated and is left into the water bodies. It contains harmful, bacteria and pathogens, which is extremely harmful to aquatic life and to humans as well.

2) Industrial Waste

A large amount of toxic waste is produced by industries. The industrial waste includes pollutants such as mercury, lead, sulfur, asbestos, and nitrates. These chemicals are not only harmful to flora and fauna but also render the water unfit to use. Due to the absence of a proper waste management system, many industries still dump harmful waste in natural water resources.

3) Garbage Dumping

Common household garbage contains plastic, food, wood, paper, rubber, aluminum, etc. This garbage is directly dumped into oceans and rivers or else reaches them indirectly and takes a couple of years to centuries to degrade. In both cases, it pollutes the water bodies and threatens marine life as well as the life of flora and fauna over the adjoining lands.

4) Oil Spills

Oil is non-soluble in water and being lighter in density, floats over it. Though the oil spills have been considerably reduced in the past decades, the incidents of oil spills still happen. For instance, in 2018, there were 137 oil spills in the United States alone. Out of 137 spills, 65 were reported as the maximum potential spills, releasing gallons of oil into the water.

5) Landfills Leakage

Landfills are the huge piles of garbage usually found on the outskirts of a city or urban settlement. The garbage from the landfills leaks into the water bodies with rain or reaches with the wind, resulting in their contamination. They contain a large amount of several contaminants harmful to aquatic life.

Effects of Water Pollution

The most immediate effect of water pollution is on the organisms that live in water. Moreover, it is also harmful to the surrounding plants, animals, and humans who use or consume water in some form or the other.

Chemical pollutants are most harmful in this regard as they are difficult to separate physically and alter the properties of water. They get mixed with the water alter its chemical properties, making it harmful to consume or use.

The use of contaminated water causes several serious diseases in humans like – diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, etc and could be life-threatening.


Water Pollution today has become a serious issue that concerns the health of the planet and its inhabitants. Water is a very useful resource, much needed for drinking and other essential activities by humans and animals alike. If the already scarce freshwater is made contaminated then the chances of life on the planet are considerably reduced. To save life on earth we must first save the water by keeping our water bodies clean.

Essay 5 (600 words)


Water Pollution is one of the major issues of the world which has been in existence for quite some time now. Although, there have been various initiatives and steps taken to prevent water pollution it still remains one of the greatest concerns for the global population. Water pollution could be categorized in various types and the sources of water pollution are many which are heavily affecting the life of human beings and as well as other species.

Types of Water Pollution

There are various types of water pollution which are caused due to the variety of pollutants getting mixed in clean water. The major types of water pollution which are very common are given below –

  • Surface Water Pollution

Surface Water Pollution is the most common type of water pollution. Nowadays it is a very common sighting of floating garbage, plastic bottles and polythene bags, etc in lakes, ponds, rivers and water bodies. These things not only make the water contaminated but it also affects the aquatic creatures living in these water bodies. It also gives birth to various fatal diseases like Diarrhea, Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, worm, and mosquito-borne diseases, etc.

  • Marine Water Pollution

Marine Pollution is the pollution of seas and oceans due to industrial and urban waste disposal, oil spills from ships, marine debris, etc. Marine pollution affects marine species by posing a threat to their survival or inducing a negative hormonal change in their bodies.

  • Ground Water Pollution

Ground Water Pollution occurs when the groundwater at a specific area gets contaminated due to natural or man-made causes. Natural occurring substances like Arsenic or Fluoride get mixed with the groundwater making it toxic. Septic tanks, pesticides, and fertilizers also add up to groundwater pollution.

  • Nutrient Water Pollution

Disposal of industrial waste containing nitrates and phosphate and running away of fertilizers from agricultural land to nearby water bodies makes the water enriched with minerals and nutrients thus inducing the excessive growth of ‘algae’. This depletes the oxygen content of water affecting the aquatic species leading to the imbalance in the biodiversity of a place.

Sources of Water Pollution

The pollutants which pollute and contaminate the water comes from various sources. It could be majorly categorized as Direct and Indirect Sources.

  • Direct Sources

Direct sources include the Urban Sewage System, Industrial Waste Disposal, discharges from refineries, waste treatment plants, Oil Spills in oceans, etc. These sources of water pollution are identifiable and they directly pollute the water bodies. These are also a major cause of water pollution across the globe.

  • Indirect Sources

Indirect sources of water pollution are fertilizers, pesticides, chemical dumps, septic tanks, etc. These pollutants are absorbed through the soil via rainwater and reach the aquifer contaminating the groundwater sources. It might also flow to nearby water bodies and pollute the surface water. The presence of chemical elements like Arsenic in the Earth’s crust might also contaminate the groundwater making it unsuitable for drinking.


Water is a vital source of life after air and if it gets polluted it will challenge the existence of life on this planet. It is already known that only 1% of water available on earth is suitable for drinking and if the water pollution rate keeps on increasing then the day is not very far when the scarcity of water will challenge our existence. The prediction that the third world war would be fought for water might also become true. Hence it is important that we should save every drop of water and avoid polluting it and make it available for our future generations.

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Shefali Ahuja

Shefali is Essaybank’s editor-in-chief. She describes herself as a teacher and professional writer and she enjoys getting more people into writing and answering people’s questions. She closely follows the latest trends in the article industry in order to keep you all up-to-date with the latest news.