The National Pollution Control Day is celebrated every year on the 2nd of December in India in order to give the honor and memorialize the thousands of human beings who had lost their existence because of the Bhopal gas calamity. Bhopal gas tragedy happened on the night of 2nd and 3rd December in the year 1984 because of the unintentional discharge of the poisonous chemical known as Methyl Isocyanate (also called MIC) as well as some other chemicals released from the Union Carbide Chemical Plant positioned in the city.
According to the report, more than 500,000 people (of which around 2259 have died immediately) were exposed to the poisonous gas of MIC. Later, it was declared by the government of Madhya Pradesh that around 3,787 deaths were related to the gas tragedy.
In the next 72 hours, around 8,000 to 10,000 people died whereas around 25,000 people were died later because of the gas-related diseases. It was identified as the biggest industrial pollution disaster of the history worldwide which needed serious preventive measures suddenly in order to stay away from such type of disaster in the future.
National Pollution Control Day 2019
National Pollution control day was celebrated on 2nd December in the honor of the thousands who lost their lives in Bhopal gas tragedy on 2nd – 3rd December 1984.
The main objective of the programs was to spread awareness among the people about pollution and its control. The Pollution Control Department organized several programs in this regard in the education institutions.
The government has asked all the relevant authorities to install retrofitted DG sets at the location to combat pollution.
The Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways, Mr. Nitin Gadkari, on 2nd December, announced, that a project worth Rs 50,000 Cr, to decongest Delhi’s traffic is underway. Good news for the people of Delhi as the city grapples with pollution and smog.
Last year, it was celebrated by spreading awareness among people regarding how to fight and prevent pollution.
Three students from IIT Delhi launched their product named as ‘Pollution Net’ on the occasion of National Pollution Control Day on 02nd December. The net was to stop the particulate matter ranging from PM 2.5 to PM 10 from entering the house. They also took the help of two professors from the textile department for the invention. The Nano-Fibre mesh net will block the entry of the pollutants coming from outside and improve the quality of indoor air.
Various awareness programs were also organized on 02nd December in educational institutions by the Pollution Control Department. Many government and non-government organizations also joined hands to spread awareness via ‘Rallys’ and ‘Walks’ on the ill effects of pollution and how it can be prevented.
Factors of Causing Gas Tragedy
- Storing MIC in the big tanks in place storing in too many smaller drums.
- Use of more dangerous chemicals (MIC) in place of lesser ones.
- Poor preservation of the gas after the stoppage of production in the 1980s by the plant.
- Presence of corroding material in the pipelines
- Malfunctioning of the various safety systems.
- Manual dependence for the operations, shortage of expert operators as well as lack of disaster management plans.
Other big tragedies in the history of the world are:
- The Three Mile Island tragedy of the year 1979 of the American nuclear power station. It was the big tragedy of the history which occurred at the Nuclear Generating Station of the Three Mile Island in the Dauphin County, Pennsylvania (near the Harrisburg)
- Another big tragedy of history was the Chernobyl disaster of the year 1986 in Ukraine.
- After the Bhopal Gas tragedy in India, the other immediate disaster was the Oleum gas leak which occurred in the Shriram Food & fertilizes Ltd complex in Delhi.
Why National Pollution Control Day is celebrated
One of the leading factors of celebrating the national pollution control day every year is to manage and control the Industrial Disaster as well as the prevention of the pollution (created by the industrial processes or manual negligence) of water, air, and soil. Varieties of laws are declared by the Government all over the world in order to seriously control and prevent pollution. National pollution control day is celebrated every year on the 2nd of December to make aware of the people and most importantly to aware of the industries about paying great attention to the need for Pollution Control Acts.
What are the Prevention Methods taken by the Indian Legislation?
The Indian government has launched a variety of serious acts and rules for the control and prevention of pollution all over India. Some of are:
- Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act of 1974
- Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Cess Act of 1977
- Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act of 1981
- Environment (Protection) Rules of 1986
- Environment (Protection) Act of 1986
- Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules of1989
- Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules of 1989
- Manufacture, Storage, Import, Export & Storage of Hazardous Micro- Organisms Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules of 1989
- Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules of 1996
- Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules of 1998
- Recycled Plastics Manufacture & Usage Rules of 1999
- Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation) Rules of 2000
- Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules of 2000
- Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules of 2000
- Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules of 2001.
- Maharashtra Bio-Degradable Garbage (Control) Ordinance of 2006
- Environment Impact Assessment Notification of 2006
National Pollution Control Board
The well functioning or malfunctioning of all the laws and rules are checked by the National Pollution Control Board (NPCB) or Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) which is the governing body in India for the prevention of pollution. It always checks whether the environment-friendly technologies are utilized by all the industries in the right way or not.
Maharashtra has its own control board called the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) as it urgently required pollution control methods as it is one of the big states where the rate of industrialization is increasing very rapidly. The natural resources like water, air, land or forest are being affected speedily by the different types of pollution which are very necessary to stop immediately by implementing the rules and regulations in the right way.
What are the Control Measures?
- Urban Wastewater treatment and reuse project
- Scientific treatment of solid waste and its management
- Reduce the generation of waste
- Sewage treatment facility
- Reuse of waste and producing energy from the waste
- The biomedical waste treatment facility
- The electronic waste treatment facility
- Water supply projects
- Resources recovery project
- Energy-saving projects
- Hazardous waste management in urbanized areas
- Projects on the Clean Development Mechanism
There are many other efforts as well taken by the state government by making the pollution controlling Policy, proper implementation of rules and all the preventive measures of pollution. Industries are the first who must follow all the rules and regulations launched by the Authority to control and reduce pollution.