Article 370 is an Article in the Constitution of India which gives special status to the northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. When India gained independence, the then ruler of Kashmir, Maharaja Hari Singh was left with an option of annexing with either India or Pakistan. Hari Singh rather chose to remain independent, till the Pakistani tribes attacked J&K. Thus Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to a conditional annexation with India. These conditions are specifically mentioned in the Instrument of Accession that he signed on 26th October 1947. Later when the monarchy of J&K was abolished in 1952, most of the declarations in the instrument of Accession were incorporated in the Constitution by immediate government.
Long and Short Speech on Article 370
Good Morning everyone! Good to see you all! I am ________ from class/dept __________, here to give a speech on one of the most talked-about topics in India, today – Article 370. For those who don’t know about Article 370 and its origin, I am pleased to remind that, it was Article especially enshrined in the Constitution of India for the state of Jammu and Kashmir. But, there was an exception, while all the parts of the Constitution were uniformly applicable to all the states and union territories of India; Article 370 provided a kind of immunity or special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
That is, Legislative powers of center over the state of Jammu and Kashmir were limited only on vital matters of foreign affairs, defense, communication, etc. This gave the J&K Legislative Assembly draconian powers to rule over the state. However, you all must be aware that Article 370 has been abrogated with effect from 5th August 2019, by Presidential order. Clause (3) of Article 370 empowers the President of India to make amendments and change the scope of the Article. This very clause was used by the present NDA led government at the center in the abolition of Article 370. Apart from the abrogation of Article 370, the government also successfully passed the bill for the reorganization of J&K and Laddakh in both the houses of Parliament.
Now, J&K is a Union Territory with Legislative Assembly and Laddakh will also be a Union Territory without Legislative Assembly. The abolition of Article 370 will, in the long run, have significant political, economic and social consequences on the state of J&K and its people. The state has been reeling under terrorism and crosses border insurgency since independence is now expected to get a new lease of life with the full legislative power of the government. By and large, the decision will benefit the development of the state and expose the youths to new arenas of growth and prosperity. In my opinion, the abolition of the Article will start new business ventures in the state, and encourage new startups.
In the coming years’ sectors like education, healthcare, tourism & hospitality are going to grow at a tremendous pace, generating employment and improving the economy. All in all, this is a good action by the government taken in a good spirit for the benefit of the people of Jammu & Kashmir. The move got huge support from Indian masses and political parties as well. Almost all the political parties of India, big or small, supported the move; though, there were few exceptions also. The opinion of the senior Congress leadership is however divided over the issue. The scrapping of Article 370 from J&K didn’t evoke much response from the international community, as no international treaty of commitment was violated.
However, Pakistan is crying foul and terms the move as unilateral, biased and unconstitutional. Present Prime Minister of Pakistan has also indicated on taking the matter to the United Nations; though, there to lies little hope as no international violation has been made by India. With this, I would like to end my speech on Article 370 and hope that the people of Jammu and Kashmir and Laddakh, will soon be on the path of growth and development as the rest of the nation is. Thank You!!
A very Good Morning to all those present here. I am ________ from __________, here to talk to you and share views on Article 370. Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provided a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. J&K was allowed to have its own Constitution and rendered the Constitution of India inapplicable in the state. The Article also gave the local leadership of J&K, superiority over Centre to rule the state at its own will. It also gave the government of Jammu and Kashmir, the power to decide the citizenship and its rights.
Article 370 was instituted in the Constitution of India in 1949 as a Temporary, Transitional and Special provision. All of you must have got the news, nevertheless, it’s my duty to remind you all, that Article 370 has been scrapped by the BJP led NDA alliance at the center. This had been possible by passing a Presidential order, abrogating Article 370 from J&K. Clause 3, of Article 370 itself mentions that the President of the Indian Union is empowered to make necessary changes into the Article or to abolish it right away. Overall it is a good move by the government of India and I have arguments to support my opinion.
Till now Jammu and Kashmir had its own Constitution and flag, moreover, any disrespect to the Indian national flag wasn’t a crime under the law. But, now with Article 370 scrapped no one would dare to burn or malign the Tricolor in any way. The Article also gave dual citizenship to the residents of J&K, that is every resident of J&K was also a resident of India; on the other hand, residents of other parts of India were not considered as residents of J&K. This divisive law of citizenship now stands abolished.
Certain clauses of the Article were also gendered discriminatory. For example, if a permanent male resident of J&M marries a woman from some other part of India, then his rights over the land won’t change and both the husband and wife were natural owners of the land. On the contrary, if a woman resident of J&K Kashmir marries an outsider, then she automatically loses all of her property rights, what so ever, in the state. This biased law now stands abolished. Indian citizens were not allowed to buy property in Jammu and Kashmir, a law that made the establishment of small businesses difficult and hampered the overall economic growth of the state.
But, now the state is open to small and large business houses for investment in education, healthcare, tourism, infrastructure, etc, ultimately generating employment and boosting the economy. The abrogation is also expected to improve India’s preparedness against terrorism and cross border infringement. It gives free hand to the Indian government like all other parts of India on vital issues of the state’s concern. The move is supported hugely by Indian citizens and also politicians, across the party lines; however, some leaders seem to differ.
Among those who are condemning the act as unconstitutional and aggressive are – J&K National Conference chief, Farooq Abdullah, and People Democratic Party (PDP) member, Mahbooba Mufti. Apart from facing opposition from certain political class and extremist groups, the move, by and large, enjoys tremendous support of the people of India. Neighboring Pakistan, (which had been till now misusing the special status of J&K for its own interest, to support infiltration and terrorism in India) is the only country which is voicing some opposition.
The government of Pakistan is contemplating raising the issue with the international community in the United Nations. With no response from the international community on scrapping of Article 370, mainly because it didn’t violate any international treaty, leaves Pakistan with less hope of having a desirable outcome. However difficult the decision to abolish Article 370 might have been, it was possible only by an unwavering political will and impeccable plan of action.
Let us hope that the action will bring peace in the valley which has long been suffering from terrorism and insurgency. Let us hope that new educational institutions, professional institutes, hospitals, hotels, restaurants, factories, etc will be open in J&K, putting the state on the tracks of growth and prosperity and to revive its economy. Thank You!!